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1.1 Atoms and Molecules
If you've used a mechanical pencil, you've probably used pencil lead.
Diamonds are found in jewelry.
Carbon atoms are the same in diamond and Graphite.
The atoms are arranged differently in the substances.
The atoms are arranged in sheets.
The sheets can slide past each other because of this.
In diamond, the carbon atoms are bound together in a three-dimensional structure where layers are strongly bound to other layers.
When atoms are bound together in different patterns, they can make vastly different substances.
Diamond structure differences in atoms and molecules can result in different substances.
Humans have used the observation ical world in a variety of ways.
He believed that the physical world was not a good representation of measurement.
He found true knowledge through reasoning and thinking about the ideal one, not through observing the real physical world.
Scientists conduct experiments on the physical world to learn about it.
Some observations and experiments are qualitative, while others are quantitative.
The mass of objects before and after burning in closed containers was measured byAntoine Lavoisier, a French chemist who studied burning.
There was no change in the mass of material within the container.
Lavoisier Hypothesizing that when a substance burns, it combines with a component of air is an example.
The results of an experiment can support a hypothesis.
The scientist must modify or discard the hypothesis if Lavoisier proves it wrong.
He summarized his observations and predicted the outcome of future observations.
Experiments can support or prove the validity of laws.
Nature doesn't follow the laws against speeding or running a stop sign.
A scientific theory tries to explain why nature does what it does.
Well-established theories are often used to predict behavior far beyond the observations or laws from which they were developed.
The law of mass, as well as other laws and observations of the time, were explained by the idea that matter is composed of small, indestructible particles called atoms.
The particles are only atoms.
Because of nuclear reactions, the total amount of mass knows that atoms can be broken apart.
It gives us insight into the smaller components of the physical world.
The scientific approach returns to observation to test theories.
The atomic theory can be tested by isolating single atoms or by trying to image them, both of which have already been accomplished.
Theories can never be proven because some new observation or experiment always has the potential to reveal a flaw.
The scientific approach to knowledge begins with observation.
An experiment is a highly controlled procedure for generating critical observations to test a theory or hypothesis.
The original model can be improved by each new set of observations.
Scientific laws, hypotheses, and theories are subject to continued experimentation.
If a theory is proved wrong in an experiment, it must be revised and tested again.
Poor theories and laws are eliminated or corrected by the scientific community over time.
Theory with strong experimental support is the most powerful piece of scientific knowledge.
"That is just a theory" is a phrase you may have heard.
A deep misunderstanding of the nature of a scientific theory can be found in such a statement.
As far as science is concerned, well-established theories are as close to truth as possible.
Over 200 years of experimental evidence supports the idea that all matter is made of atoms.
Many other scientific ideas are based on this piece of scientific knowledge.
Some people wrongly think that science is a strict set of rules and procedures that leads to inarguable, objective facts.
This isn't the case.
The diagram of the scientific approach to knowledge is an idealization of real science, useful to help us see the key distinctions of science.
Hard work, care, creativity, and even a bit of luck are required for real science.
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