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Chapter 2 -- Part 3:
It was not known how this operation would affect humans.
In the early 1960s, two neurosur geons, Philip Vogel and Joseph Bogen, performed a complete commissurotomy on a former paratrooper who had been experiencing severe and life-threatening seizures.
The operation succeeded in controlling the seizures.
The neurosurgeons speculated that the failure to fully sever the corpus callosum was to blame for the failed operations that had failed to control seizures.
Even though we don't know why this operation controls seizures, it is still performed as a last resort in severe cases.
Initially, no other changes were noticed in patients who had this operation, but how ever, research by Roger and Michael produced some remarkable findings.
The two hemispheres appeared to be doing different things in people with a severed callosum.
Conflicts usually occur shortly after surgery as the separated hemispheres learn to work together.
The interhemispheric transfer is blocked by severing the entire callosum.
There is a logic behind the testing procedure.
If you look at the pathways, you can see that when the person focuses on the center of the visual field, the information sent to the left visual field goes only to the right hemisphere.
Information presented to only one hemisphere is quickly transmitted to the other.
The two hemispheres of the brain can't communicate in a person with a severed corpus callosum.
The image hemisphere can't be transferred to the right hemisphere because of the severed right callosum.
The conclusion that the left hemisphere is involved in speech and language production is supported by studies.
When you see a cup of coffee or a baseball in your right eye, the information is processed in the left hemisphere.
The left hemisphere is logical, sequential, and analytical.
You must have undergone this operation.
A technician will present a visual stimulation to either your right or left visual field while you are seated in the testing appara tus, wearing a special set of glasses.
Before reading further, write down your answers and explain them.
Suppose we take a picture of a baseball in your field and ask you to name it.
The visual input ends in the left hemisphere if we trace it.
The left hemisphere has responsibility for naming the object.
The right hemisphere would be involved if we switched fields.
Patients with a severed corpus callosum can't name an object if it is presented to the right visual field, and thus making its way to the left hemi sphere.
The left hemisphere's dominance for language is complemented by the right hemisphere's specialization for visuospatial processing.
Part-whole relations, spatial relation ships, apparent motion detection, and mental rotation are all tasks that the right hemisphere is better at.
Adding emotional content to our speech, recognizing people's faces, and selecting objects is essential for the right hemisphere's limited language functions.
X was transmitted to the patient's left hemisphere from the right side of the screen.
The patient is able to identify the object by touching it from a group.
The patients with split-brains do not suffer deficits in intelligence.
The brain has the characteristic of "neuroplasticity", which is contrary to the belief that the brain cannot regenerate or develop new cells.
The ability of the neocortex to acquire new functions as a result of teracting with the environment is referred to as the "neuroplasticity of the brain".
If the left temporal lobe of a small child is damaged, it will no longer be able to comprehend language.
The forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain, and various lobes are included.
Brain differences will result from training in a specific ability.
Humans don't come into this world with a fully developed, hard-wired brain, which is one reason the brain can change in response to experiences.
Young mam mals are cared for by adults.
The evolutionary pro cess did not have to produce a brain with specialized circuits.
It could produce a larger brain with an abundance of neuralcuits that could be changed by experience.
We looked at the biological foundations of psychology in this chapter.
We have seen how these systems respond to stimuli.
We will look more closely at these processes in the next chapter.
The raw materials of psychological functioning can be found in the ways in which specialized receptors in the nervous system sense stimuli and how the resulting sensations are processed.
The split-brain operation uses a chart of a person's brain waves.
You are sleeping much later in the day.
Two people will be injected with a radioactive form of sugar.
Which part of the brain is responsible for breathing?
The operation was done to reduce the symptoms.
The two hemispheres can be separated through surgery.
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