The rewards are noticeable and distinct from the task, so extrinsic motivators tend to be goal-focusing.
In how they focus, people vary.
Some people focus on goals while others focus on the task.
Depending on how they influence a person's focus, there may be either benefits or negative effects.
The right mix of motivation is what makes creativity flourish.
An automatic vote recorder was the first invention of Thomas Edison.
He was told that efficiency in lawmaking was not something Congress wanted.
He said that the only reason he invented was to make money, because he didn't have time to modify the world to fit his inventions.
Businesses prosper by creating new products and markets.
The business community is interested in developing their employees' creativity.
Frito-Lay and Texas Instruments have introduced innovative methods into their train ing.
It takes the right attitude and technology in a work climate that is receptive to creative thinking and new ideas to enhance creativity.
Organizational and individual creativity are locked together.
Control over one's work and sufficient time to think--facilitate creativity.
Encouraging risk taking, generating ideas, and sharing ideas are some of the ganizational influences on creativity.
3M's Scotchgard was an example of the effects of these influences.
An idea that came from outside the organization was allowed to be developed by scientists in one unit of the company and then applied to another research unit.
Potential problems that might be solved with creative solutions are one of the keys to developing creativity.
A track coach paid attention when his runners complained that their running shoes were causing blisters.
The coach was confident that he could improve the design of shoes.
He found lightweight materials that improved the cushion and traction by cutting patterns from grocery bags.
The brand name of the shoes is Nike.
George de Mestral is a Swiss inventor.
His invention is well known.
He went hunting with his dog and accidentally brushed against a bush that covered both of them with burrs.
They were still clinging to his clothes when he tried to remove them.
A minor annoyance, but not to de Mestral.
After he got home, he looked at the burrs under a microscope and discovered that hundreds of tiny hooks on each burr had caught the threads of his pants.
The invention of Velcro was the result of this accident.
There are two companies that are known for their creativity.
Two companies value the creativity of their employees and provide work environments that help enhance it.
Flexible working schedules, open communication between employees and management, and allowing employees to pursue side projects of their own interest are some of the ways that both Facebook and Google help to enhance creativity in their workers.
According to the 20% rule, employees can spend 20% of their time on side projects that are of personal interest.
80% of their time is spent on their primary work project.
A creative work climate helps increase worker satisfaction and company profits.
People fail to develop creative ideas because they don't believe they can be creative.
To develop one's creativity, one needs to acknowledge and confront negative thoughts and replace them with positive thoughts.
I'll do a little bit at a time to get started.
Change can be injected into the lives of employees by creativity consultants.
They encourage employees to take a different route to work, listen to a different radio station, or read a different magazine.
These changes help employees break out of a rut, expose them to new ideas, and get them thinking instead of operating on autopilot.
Employees are encouraged to look around and make notes.
Creativity can take many forms.
Henry Ford said he combined the inventions of others into a car.
The ice cream machine added air to increase sudsing and allowed the bar to float.
The key to the initial success of Domino's Pizza was promising home delivery in 30 minutes or less.
Creative people can see something different than everyone else.
Arthur Fry, a chemist, was working with a glue that was to be used on bulletin boards.
One day while singing, he came up with the idea of using the glue on a bookmark to replace the little pieces of paper he used to mark his book.
Fry used glue to make Post-It Notes.
Try to figure out the other boxes.
The solutions can be found at the end of the chapter.
The experience of seeing has been successful in the past, even when it isn't the most viewed.
We make decisions by comparing the options until we get the right information.
Market products and services can be solved by relying on past experiences.
The methods were used to improve the problem.
There is an advantage to creating an external work.
You are playing a thought game with your task in mind.
Only experts in a field can offer that.
If we rely on the artist to make such judgments, we will lose our intelligence and creativity.
hank says "Mustang" creativity when asked to name a sports car.
A high negative correlation can be found in the tests of creativity and intelligence.
A low to moderate negative correlation can be found in the tests of creativity and intelligence.
Which is the best example of a functional number.
Sally can't use a saw.
The ability to develop, refine, and exchange ideas is dependent on the ability to communicate in language.
The child's cognitive abilities are dependent on language acquisition.
Between birth and the beginning of formal school, children learn to speak and understand language.
We understand almost every one of the sentences we read every day.
There are unique sounds that can be joined together to create a new sound.
Although there are 200 dif of the world, most languages only use 20 to 60 nemes.
It could be said in more than one way.
When we learn a foreign language, we experience a similar experience when we hear sound that conveys meaning.
One part of the organization of words has meaning.
The baby's early cries and other sounds are responses to the environment and internal needs.
Babies make the same sounds no matter what language their parents speak.
When infants are comfortable or when other caregivers attempt to communicate, these brief, vowel-like utterances can occur.
The pitch falls at the end of the sentence.
The pitch rises toward the end of the question when it is level.
Babies between 8 and 11 months have both patterns in their babbling.
If a baby is exposed to a language with different intonation patterns, his or her babbling will reflect them.
At about 1 year old, toddlers who hear English at home will say their first word.
The average toddler uses 50 words by the age of 18 months.
At about this age, toddlers combine two or more words to express a single idea, which results in the child's first sentence.
During the pre school years, vocabulary development continues at a rapid pace.
The table shows the sequence of language development from 2 months to 36 months.
There are three characteristics of the infant's language that psychologists are interested in.
Words are left out of a telegraph message as well as from other sentences.
The intent of the sentence is usually clear, especially if the con of language that enable them text helps listeners decipher the child's meaning.
Children seem to know how adults speak.
According to behaviorists, language is learned through imitation, association, and reinforcement.
Children listen to others talk and mimic their sounds.
Children repeat the words when par ents point to an object.
Sounds that don't resemble words may be extinguished.
The vocabulary was increased to 200 words.
The behavioral theory of language acquisition doesn't explain how new words and sentences are created.
Children should be given more credit for their language development.
We might be mistaken to think that parents teach children language.
Parents don't give explicit lessons in grammar.
The ability of children to master the complex rules of language and to use an extensive vocabulary within about 5 years suggests a built-in brain mechanism that makes this development possible.
In rare and extreme situations where access to language samples is denied, the acquisition of language is virtually guaranteed for children up to about age 5 or 6 and becomes more difficult thereafter.
Most college students in foreign language classes know how to develop a language quickly.
The easier to learn patterns have been added to the world's languages.
A combination of learning and nativist theories is favored by most psychologists.
Some of our linguistic abilities seem to be innately determined, while others are acquired through learning.
Researchers don't agree on which behaviors belong in which category.
Second language acquisition is gaining more and more interest as the global community grows.
There are a lot of questions when it comes to learning a second language.
The questions should be addressed individually.
According to the staged develop ment of a second language, all second language learners progress through the same types of sentence formation and are almost universal.
The pattern illustrated in Table 8-4 tends to apply to the creation of a negation in the English language.
Different language constructions have different stages.
It appears that all second language learners will go through these stages and that explicit language instruction doesn't work to help them skip them.
Second language learners tend to acquire the use of different morphemes in a predicable sequence.
A majority of people agree that native language learning is tied to a critical period.
In native language acquisition, the criti cal period is infancy through puberty.
Children who are not exposed to language will never learn useful language.
The question is if there is a critical period for learning a non-native language.
It's thought that a critical period for learning a non-native language doesn't exist, but it's also thought that acquiring a second language becomes more difficult as one gets older.
An older adult may not be able to learn a new language the same way as a younger adult.
Think about your own experiences.
When you were in high school or college, learning a new language might have been difficult, but not impossible.
The question of whether a person can become native-like in their new language is connected to the idea of a critical period of second language learning.
It is based on VanPatten & Benati.
Chapter eIGht sounds like a native speaker with little to no accent and proper sentence construction.
It is possible for a non-native speaker of a language to become a native.
Similar to the debate about a critical period in second language learning, it is believed that a younger person is more likely to become a native than a person who begins learning a new language later in life.
Linguistic constraints and processing constraints are the basic constraints to acquiring a second language.
Second language learners are influenced by their native language and common features, according toLinguistic constraints.
For example, is it common to end a word in the English language with a consonant, but not in the Japanese or Chinese language?
The native Japanese and Chinese speakers may have difficulty pronouncing the English words with a letter at the end.
The limitations of our own cognitive systems are referred to as pro cessing constraints.
You have to do many things at once in the process of learning a new language.
You need to remember all of the words for items and objects, the correct tense of the verbs to use, the proper grammar and syntax, as well as physically creating the sounds.
Having to do all of this with an unpracticed language can overload one's working memory and result in slower processing or forgetting.
When we think of a language, we often think of an oral one that is dependent on auditioning.
Not all languages fit in this category.
A signed version of English is not a signed version of ASL.
Thousands of manual signs and gestures are used by people who use American Sign Language.
Words are made from hand shapes, hand motions, and posi tions of the hands in front of the body.
There is no universal sign language.
Although they do not involve spoken words, sign languages are highly structured linguistic systems with all of the grammatical complexity found in spoken languages.
They are produced by the same parts of the brain involved in spoken language.
Children raised in an environment in which they have no access to spoken language and are not taught sign language have been known to invent their own sign language.
The education of the deafness population used to be limited to lip reading and speech training.
The use of sign language can make it difficult for hearing parents to encourage their children to learn English.
The policy has begun to change as a result of pressure from the deafness community.
Many people with deafness prefer learning sign language over speech therapy.
Thousands of hearing people have learned American Sign Language as a second language, and it is offered as part of the curriculum in schools and colleges.
We have seen that thinking can include visual images as well as concepts.
Language can have more dramatic influences on our thinking.
Some cultures have number terms that make it difficult to understand situations that require other numerical evaluations.
There are 60 football players and 30 pairs of cleats.
English speakers would have no difficulty understanding that some of the football players are going to be without cleats; however, people in a culture that has number terms only for "one-two-many" would find it hard to describe and understand the situation.
The experimenters gave the objects either of two names, while the people were shown drawings that could represent either of two objects.
The original language labels used by the experimenters influenced the par ticipants' memory for and subsequent drawings of the objects.
George Orwell considered lynching a potential weapon that could be used to exploit, oppress, or manipulate people.
Although Orwell's account of language as a tool for po litical control was fictional, there are many current examples of the use of language to influence and control thinking.
Business, educational, and governmental organizations can use language that can affect perception and thinking.
The verbal labels they had been given influenced the glasses they drew later.
Rightsizing sources are Lederer and Lutz.
"Doublespeak is not a slip of the tongue, or language used out of ignorance, but is instead a very con scious use of language by those in power to achieve their ends at our expense" (Lutz, 1990, p. xii).
No one is deceived by these uses of language.
Few of us realize that a military unit is killing the enemy when a Pentagon spokesman announces that they are "servicing the target".
A skilled doctor makes a termine our thoughts, but examples like these indicate that careful selection of words can accurate diagnosis, and then he steers our thoughts in certain directions.
A skilled doctor makes the possibility that the doctor is female.
Look at the images that come to mind when reading the following sentences.
A patient needs to rest after taking medicine.
A business executive needs to consider all aspects of an issue before making a decision.
If the images that came to your mind were mostly men, you are not alone.
When they read these sentences, most people call up such im ages.
Almost half of the human race are girls and women, yet they are left out in the daily speech.
These examples show how the words we use can guide our thinking.
The children created their own stories after hearing the story.
Children's ideas can be influenced by the use of a single word.
The person or people in the sentences should not be suggested to be male.
Write down your answers.
When the words are associated with being male, some wording changes may be needed.
Guidelines for gender-inclusive language have been developed by professional organizations such as the American Psychological Association.
Intelligence is one of the most controversial topics in psychology and has a long history in psychology.
This broad term is often used to encompass skills that we have focused on so far in this chapter, such as skills in language and problem solving.
Between birth and the beginning of formal education, one's native language.
There is evidence that people learn to speak and understand language.
Guidelines have been developed for using language in a Gen developmental path instead of native language learning.
Learning in a neutral way.
The best summary of the sentences is still babbles on occasion.
Babies form strings with which to convey ideas.
They use their eyebrows to express their ideas.
Brain scans are being used to speak languages.
The occipital lobes are the most important parts of the brain.
You have taken psychological tests in school.
The psychological tests are similar to the tests used in other sciences in that they are composed of observations made on a small sample of a person's behavior.
Such tests can be used to measure differences in people's intelligence and personality.
The purpose of one of the first psychological tests was to identify children with below average intellectual ability so that they could be given a better education.
Think about what makes a person smart.
Before reading further, write down your answer.
Robert and his colleagues asked people in supermarkets, train stations, and a col lege library to record behaviors and characteristics related to the concept of intel ligence.
The researchers gave the list of behaviors and characteristics to other people, who rated the importance of each as an element of intelligence.
Practical problem solving, verbal ability, and social competence were emphasized in the laypersons' descriptions of intelligence.
The descriptions of intelligence offered by people in supermarkets or college libraries were obtained in the United States, but how a person defines intelligence depends on whom we ask, and the answers differ across time and place.
Culture influences what behaviors are perceived as examples of intelligent behavior.
Culture can affect the processes that underlie intelligent behavior as well as the direction that intellectual development takes.
The process of thinking is more important in Japan than in the United States.
Americans place more importance on external appearances and outcomes when listing intelligence characteristics.
The conceptions of intelligence among Taiwanese Chinese included self-assertion.
There may be significant differences between Eastern and Western conceptions of intelligence because of the skills that cultures value.
The tests of indigenous intelligence that required the children from a rural village to perform a task that is adaptive for them to investigate the effects of heredity were the result of his interest in learning how to use natural herbal medicines to fight illness.
It is important to know that the definition of intelligence used in the United States does not match the definition used in other parts of the world.
Efforts to develop tests to quantify intelligence are a Western phenomenon.
The measurement and understanding of intelligence would not seem controversial in the United States because of the level of agreement on the characteristics of an intelligent person.
This is one of the most controversial topics in psychology.
The next section explores how psychologists measure intelligence, why these measures were developed, and why the concept of intelligence is controversial.
Sir Fran cis Galton was an Englishman who studied differences in intelligence.
The wealthy man's passion for measurement convinced him that almost anything could be measured, from beauty to personality to how boring a lecture might be.
He shared an interest in heredity with his half-cousin.
Human differences in intelligence and ability were thought to be caused by heredity.
He traced the family trees of about 1,000 distinguished artists, judges, military commanders, poets, scientists, and statesmen and found that a large proportion of them had prominent family members.
In his laboratory in London, Galton set out to measure differences in degree of eminence and intelligence.
In 1884 visitors stopped in to have their eyesight and reac tion time measured.
According to Galton, highly successful people perceive the world more accurately than less successful people.
Their reactions should be quicker than those of less skilled people.
Alfred Binet was a French psychologist who was considering ways to measure intelligence.
He decided that he was responsible for the development of the first intelligence memory and reasoning.
The French Ministry of Education made a decision in the 19th century.
The test was created to make sure children attend school.
The schools were not obligated to teach the result of a specific task given to children with widely varying ability levels because slow learners usually did not at to Binet and his colleague.
The curriculum was geared to average and above average to create a method to identify students.
The decision made it necessary for teachers to teach children who were learning at a slower rate with a wider range of abilities.
The education of the majority of students was studied by a French commission in 1904.
Their search for an ob Measure of intelligence derived jective measure as the basis for class placement decisions concerning the children led by comparing an individual's them to Binet.
Draw designs from an individual and repeat a string of spoken digits.
Children of a certain age have an ability level that is typical of them, whereas children of a different age have an ability level that is different.
To determine a child's mental age, they compared the child's performance to that of the average child.
A mental age of 8 indicates that a child's performance is similar to that of other 8-year-olds.
An 8-year-old child with a mental age of 11 performed better than the average 8-year-old.
Binet believed that the use of his scale would increase the likelihood of children getting an appropriate edu cation.
He expected that the attention, memory, and judgment could be improved with appropriate methods.
The Binet-Simon scale was revised by a psychologist in the United States.
The first version of his intelligence scale was published in 1916 and has been modified many times since.
The first version had a different calculation of intelligence.
Instead of simply assigning a mental age, Terman used the following calculation of dividing the mental age by the person's chronological age to eliminate decimals.
One's IQ is a ratio of MA divided by CA.
The child's IQ would be 13 if they were 12.
It was difficult for David Wechsler to test adults with the intelligence scale when he was chief psycholo gist at the hospital.
Time limits on some items made it difficult for a number of adults to take the test.
Even though the concept of MA could be applied to children, it couldn't be applied to adults.
The MAs of the average 28- and 29-year-old are not likely to differ because the pace of change in intelligence slows in the adult years.
The new intelligence test was developed for adults.
The scores on this test are calculated by comparing a person's score with scores obtained by other people of a range of ages.