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2. Colliding Cultures -- Part 3
They said they were doing God's work.
Christianizing the New World's pagan peoples would glorify God, England, and Protestantism according to many.
The English and other European Protestant colonizers thought they were superior to the Spanish.
Supporters argued that English colonization would prove superiority.
Richard Hakluyt amassed the supposed religious, moral, and exceptional economic benefits of colonization.
The Black Legend of Spanish New World terrorism was repeated by him.
He promised that English colonization would bring Protestant religion to the New World.
Hakluyt suggested that English interference might be the only salvation from Catholic rule in the New World.
He said that the New World had economic advantages.
The English treasury would be enriched by trade and resources.
It is possible for England to find plentiful materials to outfit a worldclass navy.
He argued that expanded trade would bring profit and give work to the poor in England.
The coarse economic motives that brought England to the New World were veiled by this noble rhetoric.
The way for colonization was paved by new economic structures.
England's merchants had new plans to build wealth.
England's merchants sought to improve the Dutch economic system by collaborating with new government-sponsored trading monopolies and using financial innovations.
The first instruments of colonization were joint-stock companies.
Money-making ventures with government monopolies, shared profits, and managed risks could attract and manage the vast capital needed for colonization.
The Virginia Company was formed in 1606 by James I.
Privateering, a form of state-sponsored piracy, was one of the most successful English ventures in the New World.
Queen Elizabeth sponsored sailors to plunder Spanish ships and towns in the Americas.
One historian wrote that England practiced piracy on a scale that transformed crime into politics.
Francis Drake raided Spanish caravans as far away as the coast of Peru on the Pacific Ocean, after herried Spanish ships throughout the Western Hemisphere.
Elizabeth gave her a knighthood.
Elizabeth walked a fine line.
Spain was provoked by English privateering.
Mary, Queen of Scots, a Catholic, was executed.
King Philip II of Spain unleashed the Armada in 1588.
Spain launched the largest invasion in history to destroy the British navy and depose Elizabeth.
England depended on a robust navy for trade and territorial expansion.
England had fewer ships than Spain.
The armada was forced to retreat to the Netherlands for reinforcements.
The destruction of the armada was celebrated in England as the "divine wind".
It opened the seas to English expansion and paved the way for England to become a colony.
England was ready to take over North America by 1600.
English colonization is very different from Spanish or French colonization.
England had been trying to conquer Ireland for a long time.
Rather than trying to integrate with the Irish and convert them to Protestantism, England more often pushed the former inhabitants out of the land and left them to die.
These tactics were later used in North American invasions.
English colonization began slowly.
Sir Humphrey Gilbert tried to establish a colony in Newfoundland but failed.
John White reestablished an abandoned settlement on North Carolina's Roanoke Island in 1587 with 150 English colonizers.
White was stranded in Britain for several years due to supply shortages and the Spanish Armada and British naval efforts.
The colony was abandoned when he returned to Roanoke.
The colonizers, short of food, may have fled for a nearby island and encountered the natives.
Others say violence is an explanation.
The English were never heard from again.
No Englishmen established a permanent colony in North America after Queen Elizabeth's death.
After King James made peace with Spain, privateering held out the promise of cheap wealth.
Colonization was assumed to be urgent.
The Virginia Company was inspired by the Spanish conquests.
It wanted to find gold and silver as well as other valuable trading commodities in the New World, such as glass, iron, furs, pitch, tar, and anything else the country could supply.
The company planned to identify a river with a deep harbor away from the eyes of the Spanish.
They would find a trading network in India that would give them a fortune.
It is located close to many Indian villages and their potentially lucrative trade networks.
The location was terrible.
The peninsula was ignored by Indians because of the bad soil and the disease caused by the water.
The English built the first permanent English colony in the United States despite the setbacks.
The English had not entered a wilderness, but had arrived in a place called the Powhatan Confederacy.
Powhatan, or Wahunsenacawh, was the leader of nearly ten thousand Indians in the Chesapeake.
They created artificial parklike grassland so they could easily hunt deer, elk, and bison.
The Powhatan raised corn, beans, squash, and possibly sunflowers.
Without plows, manure, or draft animals, the Powhatan produced a lot of calories cheaply and efficiently.
The venture was backed by investors.
The colonists were unprepared for the challenges ahead and were mostly gentlemen.
They hoped for easy money, but it wasn't easy.
They would rather starve than work.
Thanks to the peninsula's location and the fact that supplies from En gland arrived occasionally, the colonists were ravaged by disease and starvation.
Only half of the original colonists survived the first nine months.
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