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18 -- Part 1: New Worldviews and Ways of Life
Intellectual developments of the 16th and 17th century created the modern worldview that the West continues to hold.
Natural philosophers of the 17th century relied on mathematical calculations and performed experiments instead of looking to classical works.
The use of reason was extended to human society in the 18th century.
The descendants of unions between ment movement wanted to bring the same progress to their masters and slaves.
Their predecessors brought the understanding of the free people of color to the wealthiest of the affairs.
Modern science was ushered in by plantation owners with slaves of their own.
Europeans used their new understanding of reason to explain their own superiority, which is now seen as racist and sexist.
Changes in the material world encouraged the expression of new ideas.
Europeans began to consume at a higher level due to the growth of population, industry and world trade.
Lower prices for colonial goods, often produced by slaves, were one of the reasons for the growth of consumerism.
During the 18th century, ships crossing the Atlantic sent commodities, ideas, and people to other parts of the world.
The Atlantic world of mixed identities and shared debates emerged as trade became more integrated.
The real origin of the modern world and the modern mentality is said to be the scientific revolution from 1540 to 1690, according to a noted historian.
Western society began to come to a new understanding of astronomy, physics, and medicine based on both experimentation and reasoning through new methods of investigating the physical world.
Many different scholars and practitioners were involved in the formation of science prior to the scientific revolution.
Nature of the universe was the basis of natural philosophy in the early 1500s.
Thomas Aquinas was a Medieval theologian and how it functioned.
A motionless earth was fixed at the center of the universe and encompassed by ten separate crystal spheres in which the moon, sun, planets, and stars were embedded.
Heaven was beyond the spheres.
The spheres were moving in circles.
There was no explanation for the apparent backward motion of the plan ets and the observed motions of the stars and planets.
Ptolemy was a great second-century Greek scholar.
Ptolemy claims that the planets moved in circles called epicycles, each of which moved along a larger circle.
The Ptolemaic astronomy model provided a surprisingly accurate model for pre dicting planetary motion.
Medieval philosophers revised Aristotle's views and made them more focused on physics and motion.
The center of the earth is surrounded by spheres of water, air, and fire.
The moon, the sun, and the five planets were embedded in their own rotating crystal spheres, with the stars sharing the surface of one enormous sphere.
The heavens were made of ether.
The sublunar world was different from the world of Chapter Chronology.
The force of the Austrian Succession was removed.
The medieval university was the site of the Joseph II of Austria revolution.
Leading universities established new professorships of mathematics, astronomy, and physics in their faculties of philosophy after the establishment of the Pale of Settlement.
A permanent community of scholars was focused on investigating scientific problems despite the low prestige of the new fields.
The study of ancient texts was the basis of medieval scholarship.
The ancient texts that survived only in Arabic versions were brought to the attention of the Muslims in Spain and Sicily.
In some instances, such as mathematics and astronomy, the translations were carried out with commentaries that went beyond ancient learning.
Arabic and Persian mathematicians, for example, invented algebra, the concept of the algorithm, and deci mal point notation.
Scientific progress was stimulated by the Renaissance.
As in art and literature, Renaissance patrons funded scientific investigations.
The goal of ex ploration was not only to find wealth and Chris tian converts but also to increase Europeans' knowledge about the wider world.
Renaissance artists' use of geometry to convey three-dimensional perspective encouraged scholars to practice close observation and to use mathematics to describe the natural world.
The rise of print ing gave a quicker and cheaper way to spread knowledge across Europe.
In the age of overseas expansion, the navigation problems of long sea voyages were a factor in the scientific revolution.
Inventions developed many new scientific instruments to help solve these problems.
Important new knowledge was often led by better instruments.
The contribution of practices now re garded as far beyond the realm of science has been the focus of recent historical research.
The belief that the relationships between planets and stars change over time inspired interest in astronomy.
The most celebrated astronomer was also an astrologer.
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