Islam developed a mystical tradition called Sufism, which is similar to Buddhism, Hinduism, Judaism, and Christianity.
It was a popular reaction to the worldliness of the Umayyad regime.
Sufis sought divine love and knowledge through intuition rather than through rational deduction and study of the shari'a.
The earliest Sufis devoted themselves to prayer, prayer, prayer, and the avoidance of sin, following an ascetic routine of denial of physical desires to achieve a spiritual goal.
The woman mystic Rabi'a epitomized this combination of renunciation and devotion.
An attractive woman who refused marriage so that nothing would distract her from her total commitment to God attracted followers for whom she served as a spiritual guide.
The English phrase "whirling Some Sufis acquired reputations as charismatic holy men to whom ordinary Muslims came seeking healing, charity, spiritual consolation" refers to the fact that some Sufis entered hypnotic or ecstatic trances, either through the constant repetition of certain prayers or through physical exertions Sufis were known for their writings.
The Spanish mystic-philosopher Ibn al'Arabi was the most famous medieval Sufi.
He traveled all over Spain, North Africa, and Arabia looking for Sufism masters.
Non-Sufi Muslims have always been fascinated by the collective rituals in which Sufis try to get closer to God.
The work of art shown here is a miniature painting from the 16th century that shows the work of a fourteenth-century Persian poet whose poems had a place in Sufi rituals.
The Sufi movement flourished due to the increasing worldliness of the Muslim community.
Sufis engaged in ascetic practices and performed group rituals to draw closer to God.
Sufis experienced sensations of happiness, fear, hope, longing, and bliss while performing the rituals.
One of the most influential poets in the Persian language is the fourteenth-century poet Hafiz.
He wrote about the joys of love and wine, as well as about court politics of the period.
His poems convey the intoxication of love and mystical experience.
Sultan Muhammad used the conventions of Persian miniature painting to show Sufis inspired by Hafiz's poetry.
Persian miniatures are usually the size of a page and were first developed as an art form to illustrate luxury books.
The colors are bright and pure because the artists used mineral pigments that don't fade.
The lighting is even and the faces are shown in three-quarters view.
The viewers looked down on the scene as if they were at a higher place.
The exterior elements are visible through windows in the paintings.
Many figures are depicted with those farther away shown higher on the page, despite the small size of the paintings.
The clothing of the figures, the patterns on the floor and wall tiles, and even the plants seen through the windows are rendered in fine detail.
Hinduism in India, Buddhism in Central Asia, Zoroastrianism in Persia, and Judaism and Christianity in western Asia and Europe were some of the major religions that came into contact with Islam.
The relationship with Christianity was the most important in defining Muslim identity.
Christendom was the most significant "other" to Muslims in the heartland of Islam.
The Christian- Muslim encounter is important to both sides because of the close physical proximity and long history of military encounters.
Middle Eastern Muslims and European Christians have the same Judeo-Christian heritage.
Muslims learned about Christianity from the Christians they met in conquered territories, from the Old and New Testaments, and from Jews and Christians who converted to Islam.
There was a lot of Muslim opinion about Jesus and Christians before 1400.
Muslim views were more positive in other periods.
Christians and Muslims met frequently in business and trade during the Middle Ages.
European merchants lived in the Muslim East for a long time, which gave them a familiarity with Muslim art and architecture.
The higher education system of Christians is very similar to that of Islam.
Andalusia in southern Spain had the greatest cultural impact on Islam.
Muslims, Christians, and Jews lived in close proximity in Andalusia during the 8th and 12th centuries, and some scholars believe the period represents a remarkable era of interfaith harmony.
Many Christians adopted Arab patterns of speech and dress, gave up the practice of eating pork, and developed a special appreciation for Arab music and poetry.
The Muslim practice of going out in public with their faces veiled was chosen by some Christian women of elite status.
These Christians did not attach much importance to the differences between the two religions.
Christians who adopted Arab customs did not convert.
Both Muslim scholars and Christian clerics criticized Mozarabs.
Muslim teachers were worried that close contact between people of the two religions would lead to MuslimContamination and become a threat to the Islamic faith.
There was concern that a knowledge of Islam would lead to confusion.
Muslim scholars and Christian theologians argued about moral decline.
Muslim regulations in the tenth century closely defined what Christians and Muslims could do.
A Christian, even though much assimilated, remained an unbeliever.
They had to be buried in their own cemeteries, they couldn't learn the Qur'an, they couldn't build new churches, and they couldn't employ Muslim workers or servants.
A Muslim was sentenced to death.
Most of the Iberian Peninsula was under Christian control by about 1250.
Christian kings set up schools that taught both Arabic and Latin to train missionaries.
There was limited contact between people of the two religions.
The Muslim assault on Christian Europe in the eighth and ninth centuries left a legacy of bitter hostility.
Christians felt threatened by a faith that denied the Trinity and accepted Jesus as a prophet, but also acknowledged God as the creator of the universe.
A Moor and a Christian are playing chess together on a page from a 13th century book.
Muslim scholars wrote sympathetically about Jesus despite the conflicts between the two religions.
Ikhwan al-Safa held that Jesus tried to be the healing physician, teaching by parables and trying to touch people's hearts by peace and love, even though he rejected the harsh punishments reflected in the Jewish Torah.
The theologian and qadi of Teheran argued that Christians had rejected Jesus's teachings because they failed to observe the ritual purity of prayer, substituting poems by Christian scholars for scriptural prayers.
Christians failed to observe the laws of Jesus and Jesus's message was distorted.
Positive and negative views of Islam were found in literature in the Christian West.
Two medieval poems that survive in scores of manuscripts show broad-mindedness and tolerance toward Muslims.
Christian literature often portrayed Muslims as the most evil of Europe's enemies.
Dante was placed near Satan in the ninth circle, where he was condemned as a spreader of discord and scandal.
The impact of the Christian and Islamic worlds on each other was significant.
Frankish weapons were used by Muslims during the Crusades.
The Greek texts were only translated into Arabic.
Muhammad preached to the people to give up their idols and submit to the one indivisible God after he experienced a religious vision.
He taught strict monotheism and believed in the same God as the Christians and Jews.
The Old and New Testaments of the Bible were appropriated by Islam.
The Qur'an was produced after Muhammad's followers gathered his revelations.
Muslims carried their faith from the Arabian peninsula through the Middle East, to North Africa and Spain, and to the borders of India within a century.
The caliphate was established through two dynasties.
The main challenge faced by the caliphate was the division of Muslim theology between the Sunnis and the Shi'a.
Many parts of the Muslim empire gained independence.
Spain began to break away from the Baghdad-centered caliphate.
Turks came to be the effective rulers of the Middle East in the tenth century.
The Mongols ruled the central Islamic lands for eighty years after they invaded the Middle East in the 13th century.
The Muslim society was very patriarchal.
A structure that privileged the ruling Arab Muslims over converts to Islam, then over Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians, as well as a large number of slaves, was also present.
Slaves were usually converted to Islam and could hold important positions in the army.
The roles of men and women in Islamic society were different.
The veiling of women became a common practice over time.
Trade and profitmaking were not discouraged by Islam.
Muslim merchants transported goods across Asia, the Middle East, Africa, and western Europe.
Money orders, bills of exchange, and joint stock companies aided the conduct of business as trade flourished.
Wealth from trade allowed for a sophisticated and gracious culture in the cities of the Islamic world.
Muslim scholars produced important work in many disciplines.
During this period, Christians and Jews interacted in many ways.
At the time of the Crusades and of the Christian reconquest of Islamic Spain, anti-Christian writings appeared, but in other periods Islamic views were more positive.
Many Christians converted to Islam in the early centuries.
The Mozarabs were assimilated into Muslim culture while retaining their religion.
After Muhammad's death, his teachings were revered in large parts of the world, from Spain to Afghanistan.
The spread of Islam was largely the result of military conquests that extended Islamic lands.
Both Christians and Jews maintained large communities in Islamic lands.
The development of each culture depended on cultural contact among Christians, Jews, and Muslims.
The impact of Muslim civilization beyond its borders was a result of many sources, including Persia and Byzantium.
Muslim scholars translated early Greek philosophy and science into Arabic.
The Muslim lands were connected to Europe and to India and China through trade.
Islam spread along the Mediterranean coast of North Africa during the first and second centuries after Muhammad.
The next chapter will look at other developments in Africa during this time.
Visitors from other parts of the Islamic world wrote many of the sources that tell us about the African societies.
The spread of Islam to the elites of many societies was aided by Muslim traders who traveled through Africa.
Christianity spread from Egypt to Ethiopia before the time of Muhammad and retained its hold in subsequent centuries.
In the next chapter, Africa's history is introduced.
Explain the significance of each item.
A cooling of the climate is linked to a decline in the Iranian cotton industry and crossbreeding of one- and two-humped camels.
Argues that under Islamic states Jews were less marginalized than under Christian states.
An excellent study of Muslim trade and commerce draws on a wide range of both Western and Arab sources.
A short account of the earliest contacts between Christians and Muslims.
The Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca has a social, commercial, and political significance.
The Qur'an is being approached.
The translations are set in a historical and cultural context.
The political struggles of the philosopher Averroes were the subject of a historical story.
A film about Muhammad's childhood was filmed in Iran.
There are links to films about the reconstructed ship on the site.
Africa's sheer size, tropical diseases, and the difficulty of navigating Africa's rivers inland limited travel to a few intrepid Muslim explorers such as Ibn Battuta.
Recent scholarship has allowed us to learn more about early African civilizations and appreciate their diversity.
Between 400 and 1,500 civilizations, some highly centralized, bureaucratized, and socially stratified, were developed in Africa alongside communities with looser forms of social organization often held together through common kinship bonds.
Salt, gold, cloth, ironware, ivory, and other goods came from the trans-Saharan trade in West Africa.
West Africa and Muslim societies in North Africa and the Middle East were connected after 700.
The Islamic world was experiencing a golden age when huge stores of new information arrived.
Ironworking and domesticated crops and animals can be found in Africa's southern tip.
Great Zimbabwe was established in the interior.
The Swahili established large and prosperous city-states along the Indian Ocean coast.
Africa covers 20 percent of the earth's land surface and is home to many different cultures.
It is difficult to generalize about African life because statements like "African culture is..." or "African people are..." are meaningless.
The study of African history is both exciting and challenging because of the rich diversity of African peoples.
There is little plant life in the Inland from these areas.
The vast Sahara in the north and the Namib in the south are some of Africa's great deserts.
55 percent of the African continent is covered in the savannas, which are flat grassland and extend from south-central Africa to the eastern coast.
There are dense tropical rain forests on both sides of the equator in central Africa.
Subtropical climates are limited to the northern and southern coasts and the regions of high elevation.
In the desert and semidesert areas there is very little precipitation.
Africa's climate zones have always been important in the history of the continent.
The tropics, savanna, sub-desert, desert, and Mediterranean climate mirror each other north and south of the equator.
African economic development has been influenced by geography and climate.
The earliest humans hunted in the eastern African plains.
herding was favored by the drier regions.
Grain-based agriculture was encouraged in the savanna regions.
Tropical forests favored root-based agriculture.
The economies were supported by fishing.
Africa's peoples are not the same as the continent's.
The Muslim Arabs of North Africa conquered the North peoples and traded with them across the Sahara Desert.
The Swahili peoples along the East African coast developed a maritime civilization and had rich commercial contacts with southern Arabia, the Persian Gulf, India, China, and the Malay Archipelago.
Hundreds of terra-cotta sculptures such as the figure of this woman survive from the Nok culture, which originated in the central plateau of northern Nigeria in the first millennium B.C.E.
The Pygmies were short-statured peoples who lived in the rain forests.
At the crossroads of three continents, Ancient Egypt was a melting pot of different cultures, peoples and languages.
The great achievements of Egyptian culture were made possible by this diverse and cosmopolitan population.
Many scholars believe that Africans originated in the sub-Sahara and resided in Upper Egypt, but that other ethnic groups made up the majority of the population.
There are three sets of inscriptions on the stone slab engraved with the Early Descriptions of Africa from Egypt.
For the first time, scholars were able to decipher the hieroglyphs by comparing the Greek and demotic texts.
The first excerpt is from the texts.
The East African coast is described in the excerpt.
The decree should be written on a stone, sacred writing, document writing, and Greek writing, and set up in the first class temples, the second class temples, and the third class temples, next to the statue of the King.
The crocodiles are the only wild beasts that do not attack men.
There are sewed boats and canoes in this place, which they use for fishing and catching tortoise.
They catch them in wicker baskets, which are fastened across the channel between the breakers, in this island.
The last market-town of Azania is called Rhapta.
The people of Muza use Arab captains and agents who are familiar with the natives and understand the language to send large ships.
The lances made at Muza for this trade are imported into these markets, as well as various kinds of glass and wine.
The quantity of ivory exported from these places is inferior to that of Adulis, rhinoceros-horn and tortoise-shell, and a little palm-oil.
The introduction of new crops from Asia and the establishment of settled agriculture profoundly changed many African societies.
Bantu-speakers took the knowledge of domesticated livestock and agriculture, along with the ironworking skills that had developed in northern and western Africa, and spread them south across central and southern Africa.
A strong sense of community based on blood relationships and religion was the most prominent feature of early West African society.
Africa's agriculture began very early.
In the fifth millennium B.C.E., plant knowledge moved west from the Levant to the Nile Delta.
After traveling down the Nile Valley, settled agriculture moved west across the Sahel to the central and western Sudan.
By the first century B.C.E., West Africans were living in agricultural communities.
African farmers used to domesticate plants.
Most Africans evolved a sedentary way of life: living in villages, clearing fields, and fishing.
The central rain forest region and southern Africa were the only places where hunting-andgathering societies existed.
There are over fifteen thousand paintings that have been catalogued in Tassili n'Ajjer, a mountainous region in the Sahara where cattle are grazed while a man stands guard over them.
Behind the man are his two children playing and his two wives working in the compound.
A cow is in an enclosure.
The people of East Africa grew cereals, raised cattle, and used wooden and stone tools.
The herds prospering on the open savannas that are free of tsetse are devastating to cattle.
Cattle are prized by early East African people.
Many trading agreements, marriage alliances, political compacts, and treaties were negotiated in terms of cattle.
There are cereals that are indigenous to Africa.
Scholars think traders brought bananas, taros, sugarcane, and coconut palms to Africa from Southeast Asia.
Tropical forest conditions were ideal for banana plants.
All of the animals that were domesticated by the native peoples of sub-Saharan Africa came from outside Africa.
The only animal native to Africa that was domesticated was the guinea fowl.
Elephants, hippopotamuses, giraffes, rhinoceros, and zebras were too large to be domesticated.
The evolution from a hunter-gatherer life to a settled life had profound effects.
Scholars theorize that the increase in agricultural and pastoral populations did not remain constant.
It's not clear if population growth was accompanied by an increase in agricultural output.
Early African societies were influenced by the spread of ironworking, though scholars don't agree on where this technology went.
The Phoenicians brought the iron-smelting technique to northwestern Africa.
Others think it spread from the Meroe region of the Nile.
Ironworking may have been carried south from the Mediterranean coast.
The ancient iron tools found at the village of Nok in Nigeria seem to show that ironworking industries existed in West Africa as far back as 700 B.C.E.
The Nok culture, famous for its fine terra-cotta sculptures, flourished from 800 B.C.E.
The migrations of Bantu-speaking peoples are linked to the spread of ironworking.
Most of the 70 million people living in the south and east of the river speak a language.
Modern scholars have tried to reconstruct the history of Bantu-speakers on the basis of linguistics, oral traditions, archaeology, and anthropology.
Information about early diet and environments has been provided by botanists and zoologists.
The speakers of a Bantu language live south and east of the river.
Bantu-speaking peoples originated in the Benue region.
Historians don't know why they started this movement.
The evolution of centralized kingdoms allowed rulers to expand their authority while causing people to flee in the hope of regaining their independence, according to others.
The earliest Bantu speakers did not have words for grains and cattle herding.
In the next fifteen hundred years, Bantuspeakers migrated throughout the savanna, adopted mixed agriculture, and learned ironworking.
In the first century B.C.E., ironworking and mixed agriculture were practiced in western East Africa.
Bantu-speakers migrated to eastern and southern Africa.
The Bantu-speakers either killed or drove off the people they met here.
Some of the inhabitants gradually adopted a Bantu language.
The introduction of new crops such as the banana and the settled cultivation of cereals led to population increases and the need to migrate farther.
The Bantu migrations are not a single movement sweeping across Africa from west to east to south.
Settlement patterns were determined by environmental differences.
Some regions had a lot of water.
The population distribution was very different because of these differences.
The region with the greatest population density seems to be in the west, north, and east by Lakes Edward and Victoria and Mount Kilimanjaro.
The rapid growth of the Bantuspeaking population led to further migration.
The Bantu-speaking people crossed the Zambezi River in the eighth century and settled in Zimbabwe.
Africa's southeastern coast was reached by the fifteenth century.
The region is bordered by the Sahara to the north, the Gulf of Guinea to the south, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and the mountains of Ethiopia to the east.
In the western Sudan savanna, a series of kingdoms emerged in the millennium before European intrusion began in the 1400s and 1500s.
Between 1000 B.C.E., the African region was surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Guinea, and the mountains of Ethiopia.
Rice, millet, and Sorghum were suited to production in the rich savanna.
People living near the lake supplemented their diet with fish.
The region's inhabitants increased in number because of the food supply.
Blood kinship families lived in villages or small city-states.
The basic social unit was formed by the extended family.
The chief consulted with the elders of the village.
Some villages have formed kingdoms.
The aristocracy was formed by the kings and their families.
The Sudan may have emerged from the priesthood.
African kings were often considered divine due to their ability to negotiate with the gods, as they had religious sanction or support for their authority.
The Germanic kingship of the same period has a strong resemblance to the early African kingship.
One of the few African societies to be led by female rulers was the Mende in modern Sierra Leone.
One of the most prominent West African peoples, the king was considered divine but shared some royal power with the Queen Mother.
She was a member of the governing council and had full voting power.
The future king was initially chosen by the Queen Mother.
His elders and commoners had to approve him.
If the future king did not please the Queen Mother, she would refuse the royal insignia.
Western Sudanese religions were animistic and polytheistic.
Most people believed that the universe was created by a supreme being.
As long as these groups behaved appropriately, ancestral spirits could seek God's blessings for families' and communities' prosperity and security.
Illness and misfortune could result if the ancestral spirits don't protect them.
Nature spirits were believed to live in the sky, forests, rocks, and rivers by some African religions.
Natural forces had to be appeased by these spirits.
Special priests with knowledge and power were needed to communicate with the spirits through sacred rituals.
The family and village heads were priests.
oracles who spoke for the gods were important in some West African societies.
The oracles from the Igbo tribe were some of the most famous.
These women were connected with a local deity that resided in a sacred cave or other site.
The local male rulers were no match for the power and authority of the priestesses.
Review flashcards and saved quizzes
Getting your flashcards
You're all caught up!
Looks like there aren't any notifications for you to check up on. Come back when you see a red dot on the bell!