Independence was trying to keep control of its empire.
"Neither national John F. Kennedy and the independence nor democratic evolution exists in any area dominated by Soviet imperial Cold War ism," Secretary of State Dean Acheson warned ominously.
The events in Los Angeles and Vietnam were part of the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union.
The Cold War dominated global politics for more than forty years after it began in Europe as World War II ended and extended to Asia, Latin America, the Middle East, and Africa.
The Cold War created suspicion of "subversives" in govern ment, education, and the media.
Congress increased military expenditures because of the arms race.
The power of the corporations that built planes, munitions, and electronic devices was enhanced by the militaryindustrial complex.
The New Deal coalition tried to advance its domestic agenda in the shadow of anticommunism as the Cold War stifled liberal initiatives.
One of the legacies of the Cold War was the blurred line between the international and the domestic.
During the tense years of the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union, Americans lived under the threat of nuclear warfare.
The two couns were divided by geography, history, ideology, Global Order and strategic interest.
Their commitment to defeating the Axis powers was the only thing that united them.
Franklin Roosevelt understood that the Cold War ended in 1991 after the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
The conflict raised two important stability issues.
Wilsonian principles yielded to U.S.-Soviet power framed the possible answers to both questions.
As Allied forces neared victory in Europe and drew the United States into a lengthy engagement toward Japan in the Pacific, Roosevelt and Stalin met in Yalta, a resort in southern tory, that continues to this day.
Roosevelt focused on maintaining Allied unity and securing Stalin's commitment to enter the war against Japan.
The Big Three were divided by the fate of the nations of Eastern Europe.
The basic conditions for the Cold War were set by Stalin.
The "Declaration on Liberated powers remained standing in 1945 after France was weakened by years of war.
Even had nothing Europe, the United States and the Soviet Union would have fought each other as they moved to fill countries such as Romania and Hungary.
Private Frank B. Huff of Virginia and a Russian soldier shake hands after seeing an "East Meets West" placard.
The two armies met at the River Elbe in eastern Germany on April 25, 1945, and Huff was one of the first four Americans to contact the Russians.
The good will in evidence in the spring of 1945, as Americans and Russians alike celebrated the defeat of Nazi Germany, would be replaced by Cold War suspicion and hostility within two short years.
To keep ordinary Germans from At Yalta, the Big Three agreed to establish a turning back to Nazism.
Stalin wanted the international body to replace the discredited League in order to get compensation from Germany.
The plans for industrial machines and goods were drawn up in 1944.
Seven other nations were elected on a rotating basis.
The United Nations would convene for the first time in San Francisco on April 25, 1945, in order to negotiate with the United States and the Soviet Union.
The objectives of the union were vastly different.
Those differences were only intensified by public utterances.
How did American and outside Berlin in July 1945, Harry Truman replaced the ness of development of the Soviet viewpoints differ deceased Roosevelt.
Truman wanted to stand up to Stalin.
He said that Russia was facing an iron fist and strong language to blame the West for any future war.
Truman responded in kind a month later.
Truman in Missouri to be honored for his wartime where Soviet-imposed governments in Poland, Hun leadership, and the Red Army were behind, was not in a position to realign events in Eastern Europe.
To rule its people.
Stalin was determined to establish communist governments and punish people who collaborated with the Nazis in order to win boundary concessions that the postwar world.
Stalin wanted to rule over Eastern Europe.
The elections for client states in Eastern Europe and the call for at Yalta eventually took place in Finland, the United States equally intent on reviving Germany and Hungary, and with varying degrees of democratic openness throughout Europe.
Stalin points of agreement were few and far between.
Fear of a Nazi victory in World War II had been replaced by fear of a potentially more powerful government in those countries.
Stalin was unwilling to honor the war with the Soviet Union.
The map shows the Cold War division of Europe.
The NATO countries are allies of the United States, while the Warsaw Pact countries are allied to the USSR.
Europe's stabilization into two rival camps was completed when West Germany was admitted to NATO.
The former capital of Berlin was always a flash point in Cold War controversy because of its location deep in East Germany.
Third, as European nations suffered through terrible privation in 1946, American officials developed a clear 1947, Communist parties gained strength, particularly strategy toward the Soviet Union that would become in France and Italy.
The United States ence of the Soviet Union outside of Eastern Europe was threatened because of the belief that the USSR was from the United States.
Truman and his advisors were worried about three specific issues that emerged in the strategy of containment.
George F. Kennan was the first pro for access to the Mediterranean.
The idea of a civil war was posed in an 8,000-word cable by monarchists backed by message to the U.S. State Department.
Mediterranean and emboldening Communist parties in communism was just a fig leaf justifying Soviet France and Italy.
The president made a statement.
We may endanger our stance toward the Soviet Union if we fail to lead.
Soviet expansionism was part of a larger story.
Europe was sliding into economic chaos according to Kennan.
He reasoned that if the United had the worst winter in history in 1947, the ment would work.
People were starving, credit States and its allies opposed Soviet expansion, wages were stagnant, and the con parts of the world.
The sumer market had collapsed.
Truman's advisors believed that Long Telegram was sified by Stalin, who quickly obtained a copy of the clas.
The United thing had to be done by the Soviet leader.
If the European economy is replaced by states as an imperialist aggressor, the largest foreign market for Great Britain will be the world's dominant capitalist power.
American goods did not recover.
Kennan thought that the Soviet system was unsustainable, and Stalin thought that the West of the Communist Party was threatening political stability.
Secretary of completely understood or trusted the other, and each State George C. Marshall came up with a remarkable projected worst fears onto the other.
There is a speaker at the Har ing.
Exhausted by the war, facing enormous budget, Marshall deficits and a collapsing economy at home, and con urged the nations of Europe to work out a comprehen fronted with a determined independence movement in sive recovery program based on U.S. aid.
India led by Mohandas Gandhi and growing national this pledge of financial assistance required con ist movements throughout its empire, Britain was wan gressional approval, but the plan ran into opposition in ing as a global power.
"But in the midst of the weak hands," read the U.S. State Department report.
The United States was wedded to Congress and voted overwhelmingly to approve the Marshall Plan in 1948.
The United States contributed over $13 billion to the world stage over the next four years because of communism and capitalism being incompatible.
With Britain faltering, American offi highly successful recovery effort had little choice but to fill its shoes.
Britain's decline in Europe and the United States did not take long.
London informed Truman that the Marshall Plan couldn't increase by 64 percent and that it couldn't afford to support the anticommunists in Greece.
Truman was worried that the communist victory in the West waned.
The Marshall Plan was focused on Europe.
The Global Cold War caused Europe to become a global campaign against communism and social revolution.
North Korea would be invaded by Korea.
All possible counter-measures will be taken by our troops.
Almost every nation has to choose between alternative ways of life.
There was an attack on Korea.
One way of life is based on the will of the majority.
It was a threat to all and is distinguished by free institutions.
The second way of life is based on the will of the person who would be intimidated by this show of force.
People condemn aggression of any kind.
We don't accept appeasement of any kind.
If we stood with the suppression of personal freedoms.
I believe that the policy of the United States would have meant abandoning our principles, and that it would have meant the defeat of the collective security gation by armed minorities or outside pressures.
It is heartening that I believe that our help should be primarily through economic and financial aid.
Jacobo Arbenz was elected president of the country in 1951.
The United Fruit Company was threatened by Arbenz's reform policies.
The United States CIA engineered a coup that overthrew Arbenz and replaced him with Carlos Castillo Armas.
I would like to speak with you tonight.
The scene is dramatic.
They expose the evil purpose of the Kremlin to destroy the inter-American system, and they test the ability of the American States to maintain the peaceful integrity of the hemisphere.
International communism has been looking at places in the Americas for years.
It was finally able to turn into an official base from which to breed subversion which would extend to other American Republics.
Our Monroe Doctrine is the first and most fundamental of our foreign policies.
The answers are easy to understand.
Truman presented the choice facing the world economic development of the country.
They wanted to find a way to maintain the sented in the documents dealing with the war in Korea economic dependence of the American Republics.
In document 6, how does the author describe the elected government of Guatemala?
The four zones of occupation were consolidated into a single state in 1947.
They were going to create an independent federal German republic.
Marshall Plan funds would help the economy.
The funds were supposed to be used to make West Berlin a capitalist showplace 100 miles inside the Soviet zone.
Stalin blockaded all traffic to West Berlin in June 1948 because of the West's plan to create a German republic.
Truman and the British were not going to yield.
"We are going to stay," Truman said.
The Berlin Airlift, which flew 2.5 million tons of food and fuel into the Western zones of the city, was improvised by American and British pilots who had been dropping bombs on Berlin only four years earlier.
On May 12, 1949, Stalin lifted the blockade.
The Marshall Plan was passed by Congress in 1948.
The Plan funds helped the struggling British, French, and especially German economies, but they also benefited the United NATO pact, twelve nations -- Belgium, Canada, Den States itself.
The creation of the Federal Marshall Plan intensified Cold War tensions.
The U.S. offi Republic of Germany invited the Soviets but insisted on joining NATO.
The German Democratic Republic Stalin's refusal was established by certain restrictions of the Soviet Union.
The most important sion of the continent was Germany, which was the flash point for the Cold War.
Europe was stark by the early 1950s.
There was no agreement to unify markers of the new Europe.
After the Soviet Union blocked all surface routes into Berlin, the U.S. flew missions to bring food and other supplies to the city.
The blockade was lifted after the Soviets conceded that it had been a failure.
The report proposed a way to prevent that outcome.
The Soviet Union bold and massive program of rebuilding the West's acted out of self-interest that had long defensive potential to surpass that of the Soviet world.
A hydrogen bomb, a thermonuclear device, and access to raw materials were included in this.
Significant increases in military forces were played out by atomic developments.
States entertained the possibility of international con if it were necessary to achieve national trol of nuclear technology, but they did not want to lose their unity of purpose against the Soviet enemy.
When the American rians see the report as having "militarized" the Ameri Bernard Baruch proposed United Nations oversight of can approach to the Cold War, which had to that point atomic energy in 1946, for instance, the plan assured relied largely on economic measures such as aid to the United States Truman was reluctant to increase Cold War tensions.
Fearing that the brief tenure as sole nuclear power would overburden the national budget, America's commit to a major defense build up.
The events in Asia led to the atomic bomb detonation by the Soviet Union in 1949.
Truman turned to the U.S. National reverse course.
The NSC was established by the National Security Act of 1947.
With alarmist rhetoric, American officials believed that ment marked a decisive turning point in the U.S.
The report's authors influence would ensure prosperity and it was said that the Soviet Union wasn't a typical great power in East Asia.
The United States and the Soviet Union spent more money to fight the Cold War.
In 1951, Truman reasoned that.
The United States would have to intervene because of the war save Jiang.
He cut off aid and left the ment because he was unwilling to do so.
The People's Republic of mainly to the Japanese, who embraced peace, was established under Mao on Octo, which accepted U.S. military protection.
On ber 1, 1949, Jiang's forces fled to the mainland of Asia, which made it more difficult for Taiwan.
There was a civil war in Yugoslavia.
Mao aligned himself with the Soviet Union because he was afraid that the United States would re-arm the Nationalists and invade them.
Being afraid of a Com mainland.
The United States viewed Mao's success as a defeat for the United States as attitudes hardened.
$2 billion was given to Jiang's army.
The tration refused to recognize "Red China" and blocked the U.S. containment of the Far East.
After the Nationalists surrendered on January 31, 1949, people in Beijing raised their fists in a welcoming gesture.
The leader of the Communist Party of China is depicted behind them.
Mao's victory in the civil war meant that the Soviet Union, China, and East Germany were ruled by the Communists.
The 38th parallel became a permanent line as tensions rose in Europe.
The United States supported the communist government in Korea.
At the end of World War II, the United States backed a right Union in South Korea and the Soviets in North Korea.
For the first time in the nation's history, all troops in the Korean War served in racially integrated combat units.
The photo was taken during the Battle of Ch'ongch'on in 1950 and shows a sergeant and his men.
Both leaders were ready for a more definitive fight.
Neither Kim nor Rhee could launch an all Soviet Union without the support of their sponsor.
Truman reunify the nation after Kim pressed Stalin to allow him to Council's approval of a "peacekeeping force".
The U.S. troops were ordered to Korea by the North Koreans.
The Soviet leader relented in the spring of 1950, after the rapidly assembled that victory would be swift.
At On June 25, 1950, the North Koreans launched a first, the North Koreans held a distinct advantage, but surprise attack across the 38th parallel.
They were pushed into North Korea.
There were more than one million deaths in South and North Korea.
The South Korean military continued to fight after hostilities ended.
South Korea signed a mutual defense treaty with the United States after the impetuous MacArthur ordered his troops allied with the Soviet Union.
The Yalu River had a Chinese border.
It was the first major proxy battle of the Cold War and it was certain to draw China into the war.
The United States and the Soviet Union took sides enough to cause a civil conflict.
The Korean War had far-reaching consequences.
There was a stalemate set in.
With Truman's decision to commit troops without congres weak public support for the war in the United States, sional approval set a precedent for future undeclared Truman and his advisors decided to work for negoti wars.
Even when peace was restored, he refused to unleash atomic bombs.
"There is no substitute attack, set ground rules for Cold War conflict, and the American forces are reeling under a massive Chinese Korean stalemate," said MacArthur.
On April 11, 1951, Truman relieved war and expanded American involvement in Asia.
Truman's decision to transform containment into a truly global policy was unpopular among conservatives, but he likely saved the nation from economic ruin.
The Korean War ended Truman's costly warfare with China.
The war ditures grew from $13 billion in 1950 to more than $2 billion over the course of two years.
An armistice in third of the federal budget was pushed by the newly elected president in July of 1953.
The benefits of defense spending were not evenly distributed according to the upper map.
The United States functioned in a state of him to take a different path despite the rise of anticommunism.
Truman went permanent military deployment.
America's most impor memory of appeasement was the idea that resisting communism at policy in the first two decades of the Cold War lay the home and abroad.
The generation shaped the nation's life and politics for decades to come.
The New Deal welfare state and the containment have the same result: wider war.
In Germany, the policy was to oppose Soviet influence in Greece, Korea, Iran, and the world.
The United States resisted the second act of the New Deal.
It perceived the Soviets to have influence.
The combination of moderate Munich analogy strengthened the U.S. position in liberal policies and anticommunism.
Americans were drawn into armed sity.
A few high-level espionage scandals and the conflicts convinced them to support repressive, Communist victories in Eastern Europe and China right-wing regimes.
The "vital center" of American politics is where Truman and the Democrats will retreat.
Ameri cans on both the Cold War Liberalism progressive left and the conservative right.
Truman cast himself in the mold of his prede ism was a practical centrist policy for a turbulent era.
The New Deal was expanded by the labor force.
The party fell into disarray.
The bership grew to more than 14 million by 1945.
Wallace, an avid New Dealer who Truman had fired unionized workers, made aggressive demands and as secretary of commerce in 1946 because Wallace mounted major strikes in the automobile, steel, and opposed Amer ica's actions in the Cold War.
Changes in procedures and delegations bolted and were called How was the Democratic language that, over time, weakened the right of work themselves, and ers to organize and engage in collective bargaining.
The Republicans renominated Thomas E. after the law forced unions to purge.
In 1944, he ran a strong campaign against FDR.
The labor movement was contained by Hartley.
Everyone was surprised by Truman.
He launched a strenu Trade unions would continue to support thedemo ous cross-country speaking tour and hammered away cratic Party, but the labor movement would not move at the Republicans for opposing progressive legislation into the largely non-union South and would not extend and, in general, for
These issues are combined with attacks on the Soviet unorganized.
If they had found a better candidate, Truman would have won.
The polls predicted an easy victory for Dewey.
The surge in support for Truman during the last days of the campaign was missed by their primitive techniques.
Fair Deal didn't fare well.
In the end, the Fair Deal's only significant break was the Act of 1949, which authorized the construction of his campaign.
In an election with a low turnout, Truman held on to enough support from Roosevelt's New Deal coalition of blacks, union members, and farmers to defeat Dewey by more than 2 million Red Scare: The Hunt for Communists votes.
Many believed that Cold War liberalism was based on the domestic threat posed by Communists and Communist sympathizers.
Review flashcards and saved quizzes
Getting your flashcards
You're all caught up!
Looks like there aren't any notifications for you to check up on. Come back when you see a red dot on the bell!