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23.12 RLC Series AC Circuits

- A phase angle is the difference between the current and the current's phase angle.

- Inductors, Capacitors, and Resistors impede current in an AC circuit.
- Their individual resistances do not add.
- Capacitors and inductors behave in different ways, so they cancel each other's effect.

- The "resonance" features that are the basis of many applications are given rise to by these.

- Here is the impedance of the circuit.
- The larger the impedance, the smaller the current.

- Currents must be the same in each part of the circuit at all times, so that we can say the currents are equal and in phase.
- From the preceding section, we know that the voltage across the inductor leads the current by one-fourth of a cycle, the voltage across theCapacitor follows the current by one-fourth of a cycle, and the voltage across the Resistor is exactly in phase with the current.

- The total voltage around the circuit is the same as the source's.

- The sum of the peak voltages across,, and is not equal to the peak voltages of the source.

- The RLC series AC circuit has an impedance of 23.66 For circuits without an inductor, take; for those without one, take; and for those without aCapacitor, take.

- The relationships of the voltages in an RLC circuit to the current are shown in this graph.
- The source is seen to be out of phase with the current because of the voltages across the circuit elements.

- An RLC series circuit has an inductor and aCapacitor.

- We use the impedance and Ohm's law to find the current.
- We can take advantage of the results of the previous examples.

- In both cases, the result is the same as the largest value, and the impedance is not the sum of individual values.
- It is clear that dominates at both high and low frequencies.

- The Capacitor dominates at low frequencies.
- At high frequencies, the inductor dominates.

- Large at high frequencies and large at low frequencies are what we have seen in three previous examples.
- The minimum impedance and maximum value for results are given by the reactances at some intermediate frequencies.

- If not driven by the voltage source, this is the natural Frequency at which the circuit would oscillate.
- The effects of the inductor andCapacitor cancel so that they are a maximum.

- Similar to mechanical resonance, where resonance is defined to be a forced oscillation at the natural frequencies of the system, resonance in AC circuits is similar.
- The receiver in a radio is an RLC circuit.
- A variable Capacitor can be used to reject others and to receive a desired Frequency.
- The amount of resistance in the two circuits is the only difference between the two curves.
- The peak is broader for the circuit.

- The higher-resistance circuit would not be as effective in a radio receiver.

- There is a graph of current versus Frequency for two RLC series circuits.
- Both have a resonance, but the resistance is lower and broader.
- There is a fixed amplitude for the driving AC voltage source.

- Find the resonance of the RLC series circuit with a resistors, inductor, and aCapacitor.

- The expression is used to find the resonance.
- The current at that Frequency is the same as if there was only one component in the circuit.

- The two frequencies that were chosen in earlier examples are between 60.0 and 10.0 kHz.
- The inductor dominated at the high frequencies and the Capacitor dominated at the low frequencies.
- Their effects are the same.

- Ohm's law gives the current.
- The impedance is equal to the resistance because the two reactances are equal.

- The current is greater at the higher frequencies than it is at the lower ones.

- The power delivered to an RLC circuit can also vary with Frequency.
- The average power is not the same as the current times voltage.

- The power at other frequencies is less than at resonance.

- The voltage and current are not in phase.
- The power delivered to the circuit is affected by the source voltage and current being out of phase.

- When designing an efficient motor, power factors near 1 are desirable.

- The value indicates that the voltage and current are out of phase.

- The phase angle is close to, which is consistent with the fact that a pure RC circuit has its voltage and current out of phase.

- The current and power factor are more powerful at resonance than at higher frequencies.

- The power is dissipated by the resistance.
- The energy input and output of the inductor and Capacitor are not dissipated out of the circuit.
- They transfer energy back and forth to one another, with the resistors dissipating what the source puts into the circuit.
- This does not take into account the radio waves from the inductor.
- In the next chapter on radiation, we will see that it can be desired, but also that it can be suppressed.
- The bumps on the road are similar to the voltage source in that they drive the wheel up and down.
- The shock absorber is similar to the resistance absorber.
- The potential energy in the car spring is the same as the potential energy in the inductor, which is the same as the energy in the electric field.
- If the bumps in the road are hit at the resonance frequencies, the wheels' motion will be the maximum.

- The forced but damped motion of the wheel on the car spring is similar to an RLC series AC circuit.
- The resistance in an RLC circuit is similar to that of the shock absorber.
- The resonance is determined by the mass and spring.

- It can be used as a clock circuit in a digital wristwatch.
- Only a very small energy input is needed to maintain the oscillations.
- The circuit is similar to a car.
- For a while, it continues at its natural frequencies.

- An LC circuit is similar to a mass on a spring with no driving force.
- As in the mass-spring system, energy moves between the inductor and theCapacitor.

- You can build circuits with inductors, inductors and inductors, and inspect them using lab instruments.

- The important quantity in induction is magnetic flux, which is defined as the field strength over an area at an angle with the perpendicular to the area.

- There are units of magnetic flux.

- There is a number of turns if emf is in a coil.

- The opposition is known as Lenz's law.

- The neutral wire and case should be grounded using live/hot, neutral, and earth/ ground wires.

- The basic function of many of these devices is performed with the use of magnetic and eddy currents.

- Current loops in moving conductors are called eddy currents.

- The property of a device that tells how they can create drag is called inductance.

- The effect of two devices inducing emfs in each other is called mutual inductance.

- An electric generator rotates a coil in a magnetic field when there is a change in the current in one.

- The same mutual inductance can be found in the Back Emf.

- The effect of the device inducing emf is called self-inductance.

- The inductor and emf are used to transform the voltages from the transformer.

- The unit of self and mutual inductance is the henry.

- The self-inductance of an inductor is related to the step-up transformer.
- A step-down transformer decreases inductor, voltage and increases current.

- The self-inductance of a solenoid is an electrical safety system.

The energy stored in an inductor is applied to aCapacitor and the voltage follows the current by one-fourth of a cycle or by a phase angle

- The 23.10 RL Circuits limit current and offer another form of AC resistance since a Capacitor can stop current when fully charged.

- The time constant is where the inductance and resistance are.

- The peak source of the current is in the first interval and the rest is toward zero.

- The impedance is given by.

- In an AC circuit there is a phase angle between leads that is one-fourth of a cycle.

- The average power delivered to an RLC circuit is affected by the rms voltage across the inductor.

- This technique is very important.

- The field is the source of the generator's electrical energy.

- A person who works with large magnets sometimes powerful motor to an air conditioning unit is broken and has her head in a strong field.
- She feels the motor is running.
- As she quickly turns her head, should you be concerned?

Would you use a large inductance?

- AC power can damage inductors, which act as a low-frequency filter and computers.

- What is the direction of the field?
- The problem-solving strategy for the ring requires you to show how you current would change the temperature.

- Show how you follow the steps in the problem.

- There is a strategy for Lenz's Law.

- If the battery is reversed, repeat the problem.

- A coil is moved into and out of a region with a uniform magnetic field.

- A coil is moved through a magnetic field.
- Figure 23.59.
- The angle between and is 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609-

- What is the peak emf generated by rotating a 1000-turn rod are the same as what is in the cross section.
- The magnetic field between the rails is the same as the Earth's field, because the plane of the coil is the same as the Earth's field.

- This problem is related to the bicycle generator discussed in the previous problem.
- It is driven by a 1.60 cm and has a current of 10.0 A flows.

What is the price of a video game system?

- An American traveler in New Zealand has a period of its AC output.

- A 75-turn, 10.0 cm diameter coil rotates at an angle of 120 V so that she can use some small appliances on her speed of 8.00 rad/s in a 1.25 T field, starting with the trip.

- Assume 100% efficiency.

- A motor operating on 240 V electricity has a 180 V back number of turns in the parts of the secondary used to emf at operating speed and draws a 12.0 A current.

- A power plant is generating electricity.

- The transformer's secondary is being replaced at a normal speed.

- The batteries have internal resistance.

- The devices are fed into the transformer.
- The primary is Integrated Concepts.

- Consider a double transformer to create a current in the short circuit if the resistance is large.
- The device has two stages.

- The output of the first transformer is used as input to a second transformer.
- In order to calculate the final stage's output voltage, you have to take into account the input voltage of the first stage and the number of turns or loops in both parts of the transformer.
- The maximum output current is calculated based on the input current.

- A person can be shocked when an appliance is grounded.
- Since the resistance of the earth/ground wire is not zero, the large short circuit current produces a voltage on the case of the appliance.

- A physics lab has two coils placed close together.
- A current of 5.00 A in one is switched off in the middle of the day in order to cause a V emf in the other.

- A device is turned on and flows through a small opening.

- Show the units of inductance.

Camera flashes charge aCapacitor to high voltage by 23.10RL Circuits switch the current through an inductor on and off rapidly

- The time constant of your circuit is H.

- It is surprising that resonance is able to have a 50.0 H inductance.

- If you have a supply of inductors ranging from 1.50 cm in diameter and 4.00 cm long, it has 500 1.00 nH to 10.0 H, and resistors ranging from turns.

How fast can the 150 A current through a 0.250 H with the initial power dissipated?

- 99.0% of the final value was used by a very large, superconducting solenoid.

- The results are not reasonable.

- A 30.0 mH inductor has a mH inductor.

- An 80.0 mFCapacitor will have a Frequency of 10.0 kHz.

What is the current produced by a 0.500 mH inductor?

- You need an RLC circuit that can be connected to aCapacitor to receive AM radio.

- A fixed from power supplied to a personal computer is connected to an inductor.

- What inductance is needed to send frequencies to the ground.

- An RLC series circuit has a Capacitor and a Resistor.

- An RLC series circuit has a problem in which you calculate the relative reduction in inductor and a 25.0 nFCapacitor.
- The impedance at 7.50 kHz is one of the things to consider.

- An RLC series circuit has an inductor and aCapacitor.
- The phase angle is.

- An RLC series circuit has a small amount of resistance.

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