Printing was either discouraged or re-garded after the establishment of Virginia in 1607.
The governor of Virginia, Sir William Berkeley, summed up the attitude of the ruling class in 1671: "I thank God there are no free schools or printing."
Berkeley's undoing was caused by the circulation of handwritten tracts.
The popularity of Nathaniel Bacon's uprising was due to tracts questioning Berkeley's competence.
Berkeley's oppression of the Rebellion was well documented.
The idea of printing in the southern colonies was revived after Berkeley's death.
Although the next governor of the colony forbade William Nuthead from completing a single project, he set up shop in 1682.
It wasn't until William Parks opened his printing shop in 1726 that the local trade in printing and books was stable.
New England had a different print culture.
From the beginning, Puritans had a re spect for print.
The foundations of Stephen Daye's first print shop were shaky because New England's authors were content to publish in London.
The printers usually made their money from printing sheets, not books.
Daye was awarded 140 acres of land because of the significance of his printing.
The first Bible to be printed in America was published in 1660 by Samuel Green and Marmaduke Johnson.
The Eliot Bible was printed in the local dialect of the local Algonquin tribes.
Philadelphia overtook Boston in 1770 as the center of colonial printing.
Philadelphia's rise as the printing capital of the colonies began with the arrival of Benjamin Franklin, a scholar and businessman, in 1723, as well as waves of German immigrants who created a demand for a German-language press.
Benjamin Franklin and David Hall changed the book trade in addition to creating public learning ini printers, such as the Library Company and the Academy of Philadelphia.
Philadelphia had newspapers, pamphlets, and books for sale.
The debate on religious expression continued into the 18th century.
Increase Mather is the most famous minister.
He said to test their faith against the challenges of America and win.
The descendants of the first settlers were worried that their faith had suffered because they had been born in well established colonies.
The colonists were looking for a renewed religious experience.
The result was known as the Great Awakening.
The Great Awakening looks like a unified movement with hindsight.
In all of these communities, the same need to strip their lives of worldly concerns was discussed.
It was a contradiction in form.
People were encouraged to find a personal relationship with God by preachers.
There were signs of religious revival in the church.
The Puritans shared the faith of a theologian named Edward.
He believed in the idea of predestination, in which God decided who would be saved and who would be damned.
However, he was worried that his congregation had stopped searching their souls and were just doing good works to prove they were saved.
He preached against worldly sins and called for his congregation to look inward for signs of God's saving grace.
In the winter of 1734, the sermons sent his congregation into convulsions.
There were known sinners in the community.
Half of the six hundred person congregation experienced physical symptoms over the next six months.
The work of his revival was shared in a pamphlet.
In the next decade, the spirit of revival was spread by the preachers.
The preachers brought with them a new religious experience.
They abandoned traditional sermons in favor of outside meetings where they could whip the congregation into an emotional frenzy to reveal evidence of saving grace.
Many religious leaders were suspicious of the enthusiasm and message of these revivals.
George Whitefield was the most famous preacher.
The only type of faith that pleased God was sincere.
The established churches encouraged apathy.
The Christian World is not awake.
A loud voice can awaken them.
He would be that voice.
Whitefield was a former actor who preached with a simple message.
Everyone was invited to be born again by Whitefield.
He traveled from New York to South Carolina to convert people.
There is a monkey and jester's staff in the right-hand corner of the image.
The impact this rhetoric could have was recorded by a farmer who saw that his righteousness would not save him.
The number of people trying to hear Whitefield's message was so large that he preached at the edges of cities.
In one case there were over twenty thousand people in Philadelphia.
Whitefield and the other preachers made the revivals popular.
The religious revivals were a casualty of the preachers' success.
As preachers became more experimental, they lost many people.
They had to dance naked in circles at night in order to be saved.
They could burn the books he didn't like.
It was shown that revivalism had gone wrong when there was a divide between "New Lights" and "Old Lights" in the 1740s and 1750s.
The religious revivals had a huge impact on America.
People were encouraged to question the world around them.
This idea created a language of individualism that promised to change everything else.
The call for independence reappeared in the language of individualism provided by the Great Awakening.
The groundwork was laid for a more republican society after America's revolution.
Society did not change quickly.
It would take a lot of conflict to change colonial life.
Thirty-seven of them were French and Native Americans, who were at war with Britain for seven years.
These wars were not fought by European soldiers.
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