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41.3 Excretion Systems
The acid-base balance is maintained by secreting excess H+ ion.
In a cross-section of the kidneys, the tubules are placed close together and in contact with each other.
The different cell types can be exchanged for chemical messengers.
The juxtaglomerular complex is made up of the macula densa and juxtaglomerular cells.
The hormones renin and erythropoietin are produced by the JGC.
The cells in the DCT can communicate with the capillaries in the afferent and efferent arterioles if there is a change in blood volume, blood pressure, or electrolyte balance.
A nephrologist studies and deals with diseases of the kidneys, such as diabetes and hypertension.
Alterations in blood pressure, blood volume, and changes in electrolyte balance are the responsibility of a nephrologist.
Nephrologists work with other physicians who refer patients to them or consult with them about specific diagnoses and treatment plans.
Patients are referred to a nephrologist if they have symptoms such as blood in the urine or high blood pressure.
There is a subspecialty of internal medicine called Nephrology.
Medical school is followed by additional training to become certified in internal medicine.
An additional two or more years is spent studying the effects of certain disorders on the body.
By the end of this section, you will be able to explain how vacuoles, present in microorganisms, work to excrete waste.
The excretory systems that evolved in organisms were vacuoles, flame cells, and Malpighian tubules.
The presence of a cell is the most important feature of life.
The simplest functional unit of a life is a cell.
unicellular, prokaryotic organisms that have some of the least complex life processes in place, such asbacteria, do not contain vacuoles.
The cells of the organisms interact with the environment by binding with cell membranes.
Some cells, including some leucocytes in humans, are capable of involution of the cell membrane and endocytosis, which is the formation of vesicles.
The same vesicles are able to interact with each other.
vacuoles, which store food or water, should not be confused with contractile vacuoles.
The amoeba ingests food by endocytosis.
The lysosome digests the food.
Exocytosis excretes waste.
Individual organs evolved to perform the excretory function as multicellular systems evolved.
Planaria live in freshwater.
The excretory system has two tubules connected to a duct system.
The excretory pores that open on the body's surface allow cilia to draw water from the interstitial fluid.
Reabsorption recovers any valuable metabolites.
Flatworms have flame cells in them.
The osmotic balance is maintained by them.
The excretory system of the (a) planaria has a tubule formed by a tube cell.
Along the sides of the body, there are pores that lead to branched structures.
The filtrate is released through the pores.
The opening of the nephridium draws water from the coelom into a tubule.
As the filtrate passes down the tubules, the solutes are absorbed by the capillaries.
Nitrogenous and other waste is stored in a bladder and then released into the side of the body.
The earthworm has a pair of nephridia on it.
They are similar to flame cells in that they have a tubule.
They have a system for reabsorption by a capillary network that is more evolved than the flame cells.
The number of tubules varies with the species of insect.
Malpighian tubules work with specialized glands in the rectum.
The urine is produced by the cells lining the Malpighian tubules that are bathed in hemolymph, a mixture of blood and interstitial fluid that is found in insects and other arthropods.
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