The Industrial Revolution in England and the French Revolution started Europe's momentous economic and political transformation.
The economic and political revolutions were separate until about 1816.
The dual revolution was brought about by economic and political changes after peace returned.
Europe was transformed by the dual revolution and had a powerful impact on the rest of the world.
Pankhurst was the leader of the powerful ideologies.
Britain gained the right to vote of the era and the great popular upheaval that followed in the years immediately after Europe in the revolutions of 1848.
European political leaders and middle-class nationalists began to deal with some of the problems posed by rapid urbanization after drawing the political geography of central Europe and unifying first Italy and then Germany.
European leaders encouraged their people to put their faith in a responsive national state.
The triumph of nationalism promoted rivalries between states and peoples, and in the twentieth century it brought an era of tragedy and decline in Europe.
As the Napoleonic era ended, the triumph of revolutionary economic and political forces was not certain.
The challenge for the leaders of the Quadruple Alliance was to build a settlement that would last and not cause another war.
France held a general peace settlement destructive generalized war in 1814-1815 and their efforts were largely successful.
After the peace settlement, intellectuals and social observers sought to map out the political changes that had occurred and were still taking place.
The new ideas rejected conservatism with its emphasis on tradition, a hereditary monarchy, and a strong landown ing aristocracy.
Alternative visions were developed by radicals and they tried to convince society to act on them.
The allies were prepared for the restoration of monarchy in France.
France did not have to pay war compensation after the first Peace of Paris, because the boundaries it had in 1789 were larger.
The allies were motivated by self-interest andtional ideas about the balance of power.
The Englishman on the left uses his money to counterbalance the people on the right.
Alexander is sitting on his prize.
The cartoon shows how the public thought about the Treaty of Vienna.
The Congress of Vienna made appropriate measures to maintain peace in Europe.
The Western century was dominated by realism.
The freeing of Russian serfs had called into being.
Carlsbad Decrees were issued in 1819 after the stock market crash.
The first social security laws to help investigate and punish workers who are liberal or radical in Germany.
The revolution embodied in America and France was responsible for a generation of war.
He was lied to that social reform in Great Britain was for peace and quiet.
The quest for national self-determination posed a grave threat to the torian Eric Hobsbawm used for the Habsburgs' Austrian Empire.
The state was dominated by Germans but contained economic and political changes that fused and reinforced other national groups.
Metternich served in a multinational state after 1816.
It was strong because of its large population and vast territories, and weak because of its many nationalities.
Austria was unable to accommodate the dual revolution's ideologies, so Metternich had to oppose liberalism and nationalism.
liberalism first realized successfully in the Ameri- before the law as well as such indi can Revolution and then achieved in part in the French Revolution, demanded freedom of the representative government and equality before the law.
The idea of liberty included freedom of the press, freedom of speech, freedom of assembly, and freedom from arbitrary arrest.
The five Great Powers of Russia, Prussia, Austria, Great Britain, and France dominated international politics after Napoleon's defeat.
Compare the geographical strengths and weaknesses of each Great Power.
liberalism did not fully succeed in those countries.
Liberalism faced more radical competitors in the early 19th century.
Opponents of liberalism criticized its economic principles, which were un restricted private enterprise and no government interference in the economy.
The idea of a free economy nomic liberalism that emphasizes in 1776 in opposition to mercantilism and its attempt to regulate trade is a doctrine of eco Scottish philosopher Adam Smith.
Smith argued that the income of everyone would increase if there was unrestricted private enterprise and no government interference.
Liberal political ideals became associated with narrow class interests in the early 19th century.
The early-nineteenth-century liberals wanted property qualifications attached to the right to vote.
The vote was limited to well-to-do males.
Liberalism did not go far enough for universal voting rights, at least for males, as it became more identified with the middle class after 1814.
The democrats and republicans were more radical than the liberals, and they lent upheaval to achieve goals.
It was more of a dream than a reality as local dialects abounded, the inhabitants of different states wanted an independent state, and a variety of political states wanted an independent state.
European nationalists wanted the territory of each person to correspond with the boundaries of an independent nation-state.
When Austria, Russia, and the Ottoman Empire were too small, or when the Italian peninsula and the German Confederation were too large, nationalism exploded in central and eastern Europe.
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