The nation's chief executive has an indirect role.
The scope of the presidency is defined by the duties of chief legislator, head of party, chief of state, and chief diplomat.
The power of the presidency depends on the skills of the person in office.
There is a direct relationship between each role and the policymaking body.
The skills and ability to use these roles result in a shared power relationship.
The president has shared powers with the other government and political institutions.
Legislative skills and a shared relationship with Congress are developed by the president as chief legislator.
The president works closely with Congress to develop a legislative agenda.
Different presidents developed different styles in this area.
When Johnson assumed the office after Kennedy's assassination, he already had the skills to work with Congress.
He achieved a lot of success with his programs.
Carter did not implement his agenda and was unable to work with congressional leaders.
Clinton used his support staff and developed a working relationship with his own party leaders who held a majority in each house.
The Family and Medical Leave Act, a National Service Program, Americorp, and the Crime Bill were some of the legislation he was able to push through.
The president's legislative agenda was incomplete if Democrats held a majority.
George H. W. Bush used a veto 45 times.
George W. Bush had to work with a divided Congress when he was elected president.
Bush was able to push his legislative agenda through Congress after the Republicans took control of both houses of Congress.
The No Child Left Behind legislation that helped reform the nation's schools was passed by Bush and the Democrats.
Bush had to deal with the Democrats in the House and Senate after the 2006 election.
He faced criticism for the Iraq War.
Barack Obama used his political capital to pass a bill that reformed the nation's healthcare system.
The veto is used by the president to influence Congress.
Over 1,454 regular vetoes and less than 200 have been overridden by Congress.
Franklin Roosevelt had the most vetoes, followed by Grover Cleveland and Harry Truman.
A president can use a pocket veto.
If the president does not sign a bill within ten days, the Congress will adjourn.
Over a thousand times, this tactic has been used.
One of the reasons why the pocket veto is used is that there is a rush to pass legislation at the time of planned recess.
Some presidents attempt to get a line item veto.
There are often riders attached to bills.
These riders, often in the form of appropriations, sometimes have nothing to do with the intent of the bill itself and are often considered to be pork barrel legislation.
The president would normally veto the legislation.
The Supreme Court ruled that legislative vetoes of presidential actions are unconstitutional.
Congress has oversight over the intelligence agencies.
President Clinton signed a line item veto law in 1994.
The purpose of the line item veto was to let the president strike individual items from the 13 major appropriations bills submitted by Congress that he considered wasteful spending.
The law was intended to stop Congress from increasing appropriations with pork.
The law was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court because it expanded the president's veto power.
The president is the only elected official.
The Speaker of the House and the majority and minority leaders of the Senate and House are elected by their own parties.
The president has a lot of power in setting his agenda if he is a member of the majority party.
The president will make an argument to the congressional party leaders that their support will make or break the presidency.
This kind of pressure was put on the Democratic Party by Bill Clinton.
The president can send a message to Congress by taking away funds.
The president refused to release appropriated funds.
The practice was used by President Nixon.
The 1974 Congressional Budget and Impoundment Act was passed by Congress to retaliate.
The checks and balances scale was shifted to Congress by this act.
Even though he does not have the power to appoint congressmen to committees, the president can influence a party member by promising to support pet legislation of the congressman in return for voting in favor of legislation supported by the president.
The ability of the president to protect personal material has been interpreted by the president.
Because the definition of executive privilege is not written, President Nixon did not succeed in protecting the tapes from the congressional committee investigating potential obstruction of justice charges.
National security is one area of potential conflict between the president and Congress.
The commander in chief of the armed forces is the person who can make treaties with other nations and appoint ambassadors to nations that are recognized.
The Senate must approve treaties by a two-thirds margin and approve presidential appointments by a majority vote.
The appointment with the senator of the state is the most important part of the judicial process.
Even if there is some minor objection from other senators, this kind of "senatorial courtesy" often guarantees the acceptance of an appointment.
The 1962 Nuclear Test Ban Treaty and the 2010 Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty are examples of the president working with the Congress.
As commander in chief of the armed forces and chief diplomat, the president has the power to appoint ambassadors and negotiate treaties.
The Senate has the power to approve appointments and must ratify treaties, as well as having the power to declare war, support and maintain an armed force through appropriations.
Specific policy is made through the bureaucratic agencies of the executive branch and the oversight responsibilities of Congress.
The State Department and the Defense Department are both run by civilians and are used by the president for advice.
The Director of the National Intelligence, CIA, FBI, and Homeland Security are some of the people he relies on.
The president and the secretary of defense are both in charge of military affairs.
The agency is in charge of the massive defense budget and three major branches of the military.
The joint chiefs of staff are in charge of direct military command.
It is chaired by a member of the military and made up of representatives from each of the military services.
During the Gulf War, General Colin Powell was a key player giving advice to the President and the Secretary of Defense.
After his book was published, he was urged to run for president because of his leadership during the Gulf War.
The secretary of state is in charge of the diplomatic arm of the executive branch and supervises a department with over 24,000 people.
The department includes many ambassadors who are the country's chief spokesmen abroad, as well as specialists in such areas as Middle East affairs.
A successful foreign policy can be mapped out with the help of the secretary of state.
John Foster Dulles was Eisenhower's secretary of state.
The policy of brinkmanship was endorsed by Dulles in order to contain communism.
The first woman Secretary of State was appointed by Clinton at the start of his second term.
The National Security Council was established by the National Security Act.
The national security advisor was created.
Henry Kissinger was one of the most notable people to head the agency.
The foundation of Nixon's policy to end the Vietnam War was laid by Kissinger.
Condoleezza Rice was a national security advisor to George W. Bush.
She was the first African-American woman to serve as Secretary of State during Bush's second term.
The Immigration and Naturalization Service deals with people from other countries who want to live in the United States.
The agency enforces immigration policy.
Vietnam, Haiti, and Cuba, at different times, allowed their residents to set out to the United States on boats.
The agency and the military were told to intercept the boat people on the high seas.
Congress created the Central Intelligence Agency in 1947 under the direction of the National Security Council.
The agency has conducted covert activities abroad and has been criticized for some of its actions.
When the Iran-Contra affair was investigated by Congress, it became apparent that the CIA helped coordinate the illegal arms for hostages negotiations.
The propaganda arm of the United States is the United States Information Agency.
The Voice of America is used to inform other countries' populations of U.S. policies abroad.
The United States Arms Control and Disarmament Agency is responsible for negotiations, participation, and implementation of treaties.
Monitoring nuclear test ban treaties, the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START), and the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT), which resulted in the Intermediate Range Nuclear Force (INF) Treaty in 1988, has been its focus.
The Chemical Weapons Treaty was approved by the Senate in 1997.
The treaties are discussed later in the chapter.
The responsibility for coordinating and raising an army is maintained by the Selective Service System.
Even though the draft has been used since the Civil War, the first national draft took place in 1917 and was renewed in 1940 before the United States entered World War II.
It was a source of controversy during the Vietnam War.
Many lower- and middle-class young men were sent to Vietnam because draft policy favored those who could get a deferment by attending college, according to its critics.
When young men reach the age of 18 they are required to register with the Selective Service, which has existed since Nixon established an all-volunteer military.
The heart of the foreign policy establishment is led by civilians.
After General Douglas MacArthur criticized Truman's decision not to expand the war into China, Truman would fire him.
The public and the players get into the act when it comes to foreign policy.
The new world order is fraught with danger and uncertainty as the United States operates in the twenty-first century as the world's only superpower.
After defeating Iraq in the Gulf War, President George H. W. Bush stated that the United States should take the lead in establishing a new world order.
Bush's vision for world peace centered around the United States taking the lead to ensure that aggression be dealt with by a mutual agreement of the United Nations, NATO, and other countries.
The new world order seemed to be a positive step because the Soviet Union no longer existed and the Cold War was over.
World events did not always lead to a successful application of this doctrine.
George H. W. Bush was elected president in 1988.
The end of communism was preceded by Gorbachev's call for glasnost.
The Soviet Union turned away from communism and became known as "Russia" again.
The first elections where blacks could vote were held in 1994.
The country's first freely-elected president was Nelson Mandela.
The end of the Cold War benefited George Bush.
Bush had a 90 percent approval rating after the Gulf War.
In a world without a communist threat, his new world order doctrine seemed to fit the bill.
Even though the United States held the balance of power, it could not provide answers to the internal troubles facing nations in the former Yugoslavia.
The public was not sold on the global role we should take.
A survey taken in 1993 found that 63 percent of the people agreed with the statement that we should not think so much in international terms but concentrate on our own national problems.
Trouble spots kept the United States alert in 1997.
The assassination of Israel's Prime Minister Rabin in 1996 and the turnover of Hong Kong to China in 1997 created new foreign policy hot spots for the United States.
The Clinton Doctrine left the U.S. foreign policy in a state of evolution.
Bush promised that he wouldn't use "nation building" as a rationale for U.S. foreign policy.
This policy has changed because of the U.S. war on terrorism.
Many policies related to the war on terrorism were reversed by President Obama after he was inaugurated.
Obama increased the number of troops in Afghanistan and set a timetable for the withdrawal of troops from Iraq.
The base that held over 200 enemy combatant would be closing.
The United States' image abroad was boosted by Obama opening up diplomatic channels.
He was in charge of the planning and execution of the Navy Seal raid that killed Osama bin Laden.
The economy of the United States is impacted by the defense budget.
The country is facing a large deficit now that the Cold War is over, and the pressure to reduce the size of the military establishment is even greater.
The proponents of a scaled-down defense argue that we don't need as many forces in the world as we did in the past.
They claim that retraining military personnel could be accomplished and that many industries that are defense-oriented could divert their resources to other areas.
The United States is the last remaining superpower and critics argue that we must maintain a strong defense posture.
They don't think defense industries can move away from defense if contracts are cut.
They argue that this would increase the unemployment rate.
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