The Search for Enemies
-Both revolutions attacked remnants from the prerevolutionary order
-Under Stalin and Mao; increase in the number of conspiracy theories, arguing that foreign imperialists, subvert social enterprise and restore capitalism
-These conspiracies included some of the highest-ranking members of the Communist party.
- Stalin’s Terror and Great Purges, 1936–1941: “enemies of the people”; 1 mill were executed and 4-5 mil were sent to gulag(work in terrible conditions)
-In Soviet Union: search for enemies was under state control
-1966–1969: Mao’s Red Guards in the Cultural Revolution, Mao launched his attack on the party youth groups (Red Guards) were to get rid of those “taking the capitalist road”. Go around and attack local party, gov. officials, teachers, etc.
-Both Mao’s and Stalin’s actions discredited socialism in the eyes of many around the world.
East versus West: A Global Divide and a Cold War
-Communism created global conflicts that altered the structure of international relation
-Has affected the lives of many people
-the Russian communist government became a fear for the Western capitalist world.
-After WWII division is bug, leads to the cold war
-The Soviet Union and U.S.A are now world’s major powers, represent sharp opposing views
Military Conflict and the Cold War
-The end of World War II quickly divided Europe into a voluntary American sphere of influence (West) and an imposed Soviet one (East)
-The border between the 2 came to be known as the Iron Curtain.
-A tense border, but no shooting in Europe
- “Hot wars” (Asia): N Korean invasion of S Korea(1950) leads to Chinese and American involvement in a war (1950-53)
-Vietnamese communists fought for independence from the French and then for national unity against the United States and its puppet regime.
-A communist party comes to power (1978) in Afghanistan.
-Faces widespread insurgency over its land reform and women’s rights policies.
- Cuba: Fidel Castro overthrew a dictator (1959), he launches a program that threatened American economic interests. Faced with American hostility, he drifted towards the USSR and declared the revolution to be Marxist.
-Nuclear missiles sent to Cuba, protects the island from an American invasion
-President Kennedy responds by launching a blockade.
-Missiles were removed from Cuba by the Soviets after Americans promise to not invade the land.
Nuclear Standoff and Third World Rivalry
- Superpowers redirect energy to competition for client states in Asia, Africa, and Latin America.
-the United States fears the spread of communism prompts them to intervene either openly or secretly in a number of states
-The United States supported anticommunist but often corrupt and authoritarian allies.
The Cold War and the Superpowers
- United States emerges as global superpower after WWI and Cold War
-was characterized as a national security state by some
- American economic, cultural power, political and military power
-Out of the war unharmed, enjoy major economic advantage over the rest of the world
-Exported much of its culture: movies, food, and popular culture.
-The USSR attempts to match the United States in military spending
-Communist: cracks appeared between the USSR and Eastern Europe, the USSR and China, and China and Vietnam.
-The USSR used military force against its Eastern European satellites and threatened war with China,
-China briefly invaded Vietnam over Vietnam’s successful invasion of communist Cambodia
-Nationalism brought Marxism