Many southerners assumed that the president would support their resistance to the federal tariffs because Jackson was a cotton planter who owned more than a hundred slaves.
Jackson was sympathetic until South Carolina threatened to nullify federal laws.
His passion for nationalism took over.
The first annual Jefferson Day dinner was hosted by the Democratic party on April 13, 1830.
The people knew that the vice president had to respond to Jackson's threat.
The tension between federal authority and states' rights has remained an important theme of the American republic.
The animosity between the two men grew.
On May 12, 1830, the president saw for the first time a letter from 1818 in which James Monroe, then secretary of war, wanted to discipline General Jackson for his unauthorized invasion of Spanish- held Flor ida.
Secretary of State Martin Van Buren was Jackson's closest adviser.
During one of their daily horse back rides, Van Buren offered himself up as a sacrifice as a way to remove all Calhoun supporters from the cabinet and end the ongoing Eaton affair that had fractured the administration.
The first step in the cabinet coup was the resignation of the secretary of war.
Van Buren resigned as secretary of state four days later.
In a letter to Attorney General John Berrien, Samuel Ingham, the Secre tary of the Treasury, said that the long agony was over.
Jackson would force both of them to resign a few days later.
Jackson had a clean slate when it came to creating another cabinet.
The president dismissed his entire cabinet.
Jackson did not have the political skill to lead the nation according to others.
The next act in the political drama was when John Eaton tried to kill Ingham.
The ousted Treasury secretary chose to live in Pennsylvania.
President Jackson appointed a new cabinet by the end of August.
Jackson's advice to Martin Van Buren and others administration was not well received.
Jackson dropped his pledge to serve only one term after being convinced by the kitchen cabinet.
They said that it would be hard for Van Buren to win the Democratic nomination because he would be stopped by Calhoun.
For the first time in pres election history, a third party entered the field.
The Anti- Masonic party grew out of popular opposition to the Masonic order, a large, all- male social organization that had originated in Great Britain.
Andrew Jackson and Henry Clay were among the 100,000 members of Masonic lodges in the United States by 1830.
William Morgan, an unemployed bricklayer in New York, was the originator of the new Anti- Masonic party.
Morgan was thrown out of the Masons because of his joblessness.
Wanting revenge, he convinced a local printer to publish a pamphlet about the Masonic order's secret rituals.
The print shop where the pamphlet was published was burned by masons.
Morgan was arrested on a trumped up charge.
Someone paid for Morgan's release from jail and took him away.
A man's body was found near Lake Ontario a year later.
Morgan's wife insisted that it was her husband.
Clinton offered a reward for anyone who could identify the kidnappers.
The Morgan mystery became a political issue.
More than twenty investigations were launched by New York into Morgan's disappearance but never resulted in a conviction.
Most of the judges, lawyers, and jurors were Masons.
The painting depicts a socially diverse electorate, suggesting the politics of the Jacksonian era.
The Jacksonian Era began to fear that the Freemasons had become a self-appointed aristocracy lacking the education and character necessary for self- denying civic leadership.
The Anti- Masonic party was formed due to suspicions of the Masonic order and Freemasons.
The purpose was to protect republican values from corruption.
Most of the support for the new party came from New Englanders and New Yorkers who were angry with both the Democratic and Republican parties.
Many rural evangelical Protestants opposed slavery and were anti- Masonic.
In addition to being the first third party with a national base of support, it was the first political party to hold, the Anti- Masonic party had three important "firsts" to its credit.
The Dem ocrats and National Republicans followed in the footsteps of the Anti- Masonic party by holding their own nominating conventions.
Henry Clay was nominated by the National Republicans.
After adopting the two- thirds rule for nomi nation, the Democratic convention named Martin Van Buren as Andrew Jackson's running mate.
The Democrats relied on the president's popularity to carry their cause, unlike the other two parties.
The resources of the B.U.S.
were invested by Nicholas Biddle.
He couldn't see the sources of Jackson's popularity.
Most Americans saw the president as someone fighting for them even though he dismissed Jackson as a power hungry chief.
Clay didn't understand Jackson's effectiveness as a political candi date.
Jackson gave stump speeches, dived into crowds to shake hands, and walked in parades or ate barbecue with supporters who cheered and mobbed him.
Jackson won the popular vote by a wide margin, withPukiWikiPukiWikiPukiWikisPukiWikisPukiWikistallingPukiWikisPukiWikis ofPukiWikis ofPukiWikis ofPukiWikis ofPukiWikis ofPukiWikis ofPukiWikis ofPukiWikis ofPukiWikis ofPukiWikis ofPukiWikis ofPukiWikis of William Wirt won 7 electoral votes.
In the fall of 1831, President Jackson called on Congress to reduce tariffs.
The Tariff of 1832 lowered rates on some products but kept them high on British cotton fabric and clothing.
The British were eager to buy more cotton from the south.
South Carolinians were upset with the federal government.
They lived in the only state where enslaved Africans were a majority of the population, and they worried that if the northern representatives in Congress created tariffs that were harmful to the South, they would vote to end slavery itself.
The "peculiar domestic institutions of the southern states" are at stake.
After Andrew Jackson was reelected, a special convention in South Carolina passed an "Ordinance of nullification" that repudiated the "unconstitutional" federal tariffs of 1828 and 1832.
The two federal tariffs were repudiated by the law.
The same tensions that led to nullification would lead to South Carolina's independence.
They promised The Jacksonian Era.
The state legislature chose Senator Robert Hayne to be the gov ernor and named him to the U.S. senator.
In order to oppose Jackson's "tyrannical" actions, the vice president resigned.
President Jackson's response was measured.
Jackson was angry in private.
If there were bloodshed, he threatened to hang Calhoun and other nullifiers.
Governor Hayne of South Carolina said that the president was exaggerating.
In the fall of 1832, most northern state legislatures passed resolutions condemning the nullificationists.
Southern states sympathized with South Carolina.
South Carolina was left alone.
Jackson responded to the people of South Carolina on December 10, 1832.
He warned that nullification would lead to civil war and that it would mean a state from the United States.
Don't be deceived by names.
Disunion by armed force is a crime.
President Jackson sent federal soldiers and a war ship to Charleston to protect the federal customs house where tariffs were applied to products imported from Europe.
The state militia was mobilized by Governor Hayne.
Congress gave the president the authority to use the U.S. Army to enforce federal law in South Carolina.
He argued that the greatest threat to the nation was presidio.
The South Carolina legislature postponed the implementation of the nullification ordinances in hopes that Congress would pass a more palatable tariffs.
Sen ator Henry Clay, who was a slaveholding planter, was crucial to the passage of a compromise.
Jack son suggested a plan to gradually reduce the federal tariffs on key imported items.
The tariffs were less than South Carolina wanted, but Clay's promise helped the nullifiers out of their dilemma.
Jackson signed into law the compromise tariffs and the Force Bil as a statement of the Union's importance.
The rebels were told to back down by Cal houn.
The nullification of the acts was met by the South Carolina con vention.
The delegates nullified the Force Bil, which Jackson no longer needed.
Both sides thought they had won.
Jackson had defended the Union without firing a shot, and South Carolina's persistence had brought tar iff reductions.
Anti- slavery sentiment in the North increased the threat to southern slaveholders.
Robert Barnwell, a South Carolina radical, said there was no liberty or security for the South.
Jackson concluded that thetariff was only the pretext for the nullification crisis.
Jackson was sworn in for a second term after the nullification crisis was over.
Jackson ordered the Department of the Treasury to transfer federal money from the national bank to twenty- three mostly western state banks, called "pet banks" by Jackson's critics, because many were run by the president's allies.
Jackson fired the Treasury secretary.
Biddle was trying to bring the economy to a halt, create a depression, and reveal the importance of maintaining the national bank.
Jackson said the B.U.S.
The plan worked.
The president's Bank War would ruin the party.
Jackson didn't flinch.
"We have no money here, gentlemen," Jackson said when state bankers visited the White House.
Jackson's transfer of govern ment cash from the B.U.S.
was argued in the Senate.
The only time a U.S. president has been reprimanded in this way is for Jackson's actions.
A new political party was formed because of the president's war on the bank.
They were called the Federalists by Andrew Jackson.
The Whig party grew out of the National Republican party.
Anti-Masons and some Democrats supported the Whigs in their war on the national bank.
The Democrats who voted against Jackson on rechartering the national bank joined the Whigs by 1836.
The Whigs were economic nationalists who wanted the federal government to promote manufacturing, support a national bank, and finance a national road network.
The Whigs were mostly bankers and merchants in the South.
Farmers in the West valued internal improvements.
Unlike the Democrats, who attracted Catholic voters from Germany and Ireland, the Whigs were native-born Protestants who advocated the abolition of slav ery and efforts to restrict alcoholic beverages.
The Democrats and Whigs will be the two major political parties for the next twenty years.
The rich and intelligent have been denounced by the Jacksonians.
The Democrats, North and South, supported slavery, while the Whigs were divided on the issue.
In the end, President Jackson was able to win the battle.
Jackson's "glorious triumph" was overshadowed by his controversial efforts to destroy the B.U.S.
He decided his political opponents were trying to kill him because he received so many death threats.
The threat became real in January 1835.
After attending a funeral for a member of Congress, Jackson was leaving the Capitol when an unemployed housepainter named Richard Lawrence emerged from the shadows and aimed a pistol at the president's heart.
The gun went off when Lawrence pulled it out.
Jackson charged at the man with his walking stick, but the man's pistol failed to fire, allowing police to arrest him.
Jackson thought his enemies had planned the attack.
Lawrence, the first person to attempt to assassinate a U.S. president, was ordered to be confined in an asylum by a jury.
He was a ferocious fighter.
He was determined to destroy the B.U.S.
Between 1836 and 1829, the number of state banks more than doubled.
The amount of loans made by these unregulated banks prepared the way for a financial panic and a terrible depression.
Jackson and the Democrats were committed to the expansion of slavery into the Gulf coast states because of the unstable banking system.
A traveler wrote that people in northern Mississippi were angry with land speculation.
Paper money was plentiful and people rushed to buy lands freed up by the removal of Indians.
In 1835, federal land offices in Mississippi sold more acres than had been sold across the nation.
The South and West were flooded with cotton, credit, and slaves, all of which resulted in mountains of debt.
People used paper money to buy and sell land.
With the national bank removed, scores of new state banks sprouted like mushrooms in the cotton belt, each printing its own paper currency that was often lent recklessly to land speculators and new businesses.
Anyone who could raise a certain amount of money could open a bank after 1836.
Many of the "wildcat" banks went bankrupt after a few months or years because there was no central bank to regulate them.
Huge amounts of money were acquired by the federal government from the sale of government- owned lands.
In 1835, the first time any nation had done so, the Treasury department used the annual surpluses from land sales to pay down the federal debt.
By 1836, the federal budget was generating an annual surplus, which led to intense discussions about what to do with the paper money flowing into Treasury's vaults.
The surge of unstable paper money peaked in 1836, when two key initi tives endorsed by the Jackson administration devastated the nation's financial system and threw the economy into a sudden tailspin.
The states surplus federal revenue from land sales was required to be redistributed by the federal government.
The surpluses would be deposited into state banks in proportion to the state's representation in Congress.
The state governments would use the deposits to fund infrastructure improvements.
Jackson issued the Specie Circular which stated that the federal government would only accept gold or silver coins for land purchased by speculators.
westerners were upset by the Specie Circular because most of the land sales were in their states.
Congress passed an act to overturn Jackson's policy.
The president vetoed it.
The Deposit and Distribution Act and the Specie Circular put added strain on the nation's already tight supplies of gold and silver.
Eastern banks had to transfer a lot of their gold and silver reserves to western banks.
They had to reduce their lending.
As the money supply contracted, it became harder for individuals and businesses to get loans.
Depositors rushed to their local banks to withdraw their money, only to learn that there wasn't enough money to redeem their deposits.
Jackson had thrown the economy into chaos by killing the B.U.S.
While concerns about the strength of the economy grew, slavery emerged as a flash- point issue.
They didn't find much support.
South Carolina broke into the federal post office, stole bags of the abolitionist mailings, and burned them because they were pro-slavery.
The sanctity of the federal mail was affirmed by a bipartisan group of Democrats and Whigs after Congress took action in 1836.
When the mail arrived at the post office door, federal authority ended and the post offices began censoring the mail.
Jackson's decision not to enforce the congressional action created a split in the Democratic party over the future of slavery.
The controversy over the mails was a victory for the abolitionist movement.
The nickname the "Great Magician" was given to Van Buren by his ability to exploit his political and social connections.
There is a sign on the wall of the post office that refers to the bounty placed on the head of Arthur Tap.
The pamphlets and petitions were sent to members of Congress.
A pro-slavery South Carolina man called for Congress to ban such petitions.
When his proposal failed, Congress adopted an informal solution suggested by Martin Van Buren: Whenever a petition calling for the end of slavery was introduced, someone would immediately move that it be tabled.
John Quincy Adams, the former president who is now a congressman from Massachusetts, was an obstacle for the supporters of the "gag rule".
He came up with a number of procedures to get around the rule.
In the 19th century, thanks to Adams, some 1,500 anti-slavery petitions were filed.
Jackson's successor, Vice President Martin Van Buren, was instated eighteen months before the election.
The Whig coalition adopted a strategy of nominating multiple candidates in order to throw the election into the House of Representatives.
Three regional can didates were put up by the Whigs.
The strategy failed and Van Buren was dubbed the "Great Magician".
In the popular vote, Van Buren defeated the political and social connections.
The Whigs won 170 electoral votes and the others only collected 113.
Jackson and the southern radicals put us and our principles up first as secretary of state, and then as vice president, after he resigned to join Andrew Jackson's cabinet.
New Yorker was elected president by abolitionist groups.
Jackson's closest political adviser, James Ham Van Buren, was a pro- slavery South Carolinian, but many considered him too self centered to do the work of the people.
When his proposal failed, Congress adopted an informal Quincy Adams wrote that Van Buren was "by far the ablest" of the Jacksonians, solution suggested by Martin Van Buren: Whenever a petition calling for the but that he had wasted most of his ability upon mere personal intrigues.
John C. Cal tabled.
Van Buren claimed that the plan would preserve the "harmony of our houn".
Van Buren promised to follow in the footsteps of John Quincy Adams when he was inaugurated as president.
The nation is from Massachusetts.
He came up with a number of procedures to get around the rule.
Some 1,500 anti- slavery petitions were filed with among depositors across the nation, thanks to Adams, after other banks did the same.
More than one third of the banks went under.
The financial crisis was caused by the Jackson administration, but Van Buren got the blame.
The problem started in Europe.
The Bank of England, worried about a run on gold and silver in its vaults, reduced its loans during the mid- 1830s.
Most British companies reduced their trade with America.
British demand for American cotton plummeted as a result.
There was a disastrous U.S. wheat crop in 1836.
As businesses and farms were unable to make their debt payments, government spending plummeted.
Many canals were shut down and state governments couldn't repay their debts.
Some 250 businesses failed in New York City in April of 1836.
90 percent of the nation's factories had closed.
People were frightened by the economic crisis.
The Specie Circular was the first mistake.
The federal budget was pinched by the requirement that all land purchases be done in gold or silver.
A parody of paper money issued by local banks and businesses.
The Panic of 1837 resulted in the suspension of gold and silver payments.
Jackson's second mistake was to eliminate rather than reform the B.U.S.
During the financial panic, it could have acted as a stabilizing force.
State banks around the country flooded the economy with worthless paper money.
The land that the federal government sold for $3 an acre was previously going for $10 an acre.
People couldn't pay their debts.
Many fled their debts by moving to Texas.
The banks in the state closed their doors.
The federal government put most of its gold and silver in state banks.
The poor were hit the hardest.
One third of the nation's workers were out of work by the fall of 1836, and those who were still employed had their wages slashed by 30 to 50 percent within two years.
Food and clothing prices went up at the same time.
The political system was shocked by the economic calamity.
Whigs called the pres ident "Martin Van Ruin" because he didn't believe that he or the federal government had a responsibility to rescue farmers, bankers, or businessmen.
Efforts to help people in distress must come from the states.
Dem ocrats are divided between Whigs on how to deal with the depression.
To him, an enlarged role for the federal government was the price of a maturing, expanding republic in which elected officials had an obligation to promote the "safety, convenience, and prosperity" of the people.
The government had no obligations according to Van Buren and the Dem ocrats.
The president was savaged for his attitude.
Martin Van Buren believed that the federal government should stop using the "pet" state banks that Jackson had selected.
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