The model for waves of conquistadores to follow was established by the Spanish conquest of Mexico.
Central and South America was conquered by conquistadores from Mexico, Peru, and the Caribbean islands.
Spain established a huge empire in twenty years.
The man had left New Spain to find China.
He died in Spain in 1547 after returning to Europe.
In 1531, Francisco Pizarro led a band of 168 conquistadores and sixty- seven horses down the Pacific coast of South America from Panama to Arequipa, where they subdued the 5 million people of the Inca Empire.
The empire of gold and silver was taken over by Cultures.
Spain extended its control southward through Chile and to the present day.
The Spanish established provinces in North America are used to defend their empire in Mexico and South America.
French traders infiltrating from Louisiana, English settlers cross ing into Florida from Georgia and Carolina, and Russian seal hunters wander down the California coast are some of the concerns they would grow concerned about.
The native peoples were enslaving by the Spanish in the 16th century.
The Indians were Christianized by the Spanish and given protection in exchange for a share of their goods and labor.
The Indians were made to accept their role as serfs by the Spaniards.
The governor of a Mexican province loved to watch his fighting dog destroy the Indians.
He was brutal with the Spanish.
The man was nailed to a post by his tongue after he talked back to him.
The Indians were con verted into Catholic servants by the Spanish.
Hundreds of priests fanned out across New Spain during the 16th century.
The Indians could only be converted by force, according to most of the missionaries.
By the end of the 16th century, there were more than 300 monasteries or missions in New Spain, and Catholicism was the most important institution in the Americas.
The treatment of Indians by Spanish settlers in Hispaniola and Cuba was observed by a Catholic priest.
They tortured, burned, and cut off the hands and noses of the native peoples.
Las Casas wanted to help the Indians for the rest of his life.
There is a Spanish mission in New Mexico.
He convinced the monarchy and the Catholic Church to issue new rules for better treatment of the Indians after he urged them to be converted to Catholicism through peaceful and reasonable means.
The use of "fire and the sword" continued, and angry colonists on Hispaniola banned Las Casas from the island.
The people and their ways of life were more similar to the plants and animals of the other world.
The horses, cattle, pigs, sheep, goats, chickens, and rats that flooded the Americas had not been seen by the Native Americans.
The diet of both regions was changed by the exchange of plant life between the Western Hemisphere and Europe/Africa.
Before Columbus's voyage, Europeans didn't know much about maize, potatoes, and beans.
The white potato is native to South America.
It thrived in Europe, as did corn and beans.
Other Western Hemisphere food plants include peanuts, squash, peppers, tomatoes, pumpkins, pineapples, avocados, and chicle.
Rice, wheat, bar ley, oats, grapevines, and sugarcane were introduced to the Americas by Europeans.
The Mexica victims of the 1538 smallpox epidemic were covered in shrouds as two of them died.
During the three centuries after Columbus's first voyage, Europe and enslaved Africans brought diseases that Native Americans had never heard of.
The results were terrible.
By 1568, infectious diseases had killed 80 to 90 percent of the Indian population, making it the greatest loss of human life in history.
Smal pox was a killer.
Within a decade of the arrival of the Spanish, 8 million Indians died of smal pox in central Mexico.
As they were the first to meet the Span ish and thus were the first to get the diseases, Native American chiefs and religious leaders lost their stature and their lives, as they were unable to explain or cure the diseases.
Losing their leaders made the indigenous peoples less able to resist the Europeans.
Many Europeans thought epidemics were sent by God to punish those who resisted conversion to Christianity.
Spain was the only European power that held a foothold in the Americas.
Spanish explorers stumbled onto the regions that would produce the fastest profits.
Catholic Spain was able to dominate Europe and the New World because it had forged an authoritarian national and religious unity.
Most of the United States, from the Southwest to Florida, was ruled by Spain for most of the colonial period.
America's future ways of life were shaped by Spanish culture.
Hispanic influences are present in art, architecture, literature, music, law, and food.
Juan Ponce de Leon, the governor of Puerto Rico, made the earliest known European exploration of Florida in 1513.
Spanish explorers sailed along the Gulf coast from Florida to Mexico and established a colony on the Carolina coast.
In 1539, a group of conquistadores landed on the west shore of La Florida and set out on horseback, armored and mounted on horses, with fighting dogs and herds of pigs in tow, to search for wealth.
They found fields of corn, beans and squash.
After leading the expedition north as far as western North Carolina, De Soto moved west across Tennessee, Georgia, and Alabama, where he encountered the Mississippi River.
After crossing the Mississippi, the conquistadores went up the Arkansas River and destroyed Indian vil ages.
After de Soto died in the spring of 1542, the survivors of his party floated down the Mississippi River and 311 of the original explorers made their way to Spanish Mexico.
In 1565, in response to French attempts to colonize north Florida, a ragtag group of 1,500 soldiers and colonists founded an outpost on the Florida coast.
The first permanent European settlement in the United States was St. Augus tine.
St. Augustine was created by the Spanish in response to the French.
In the 1560s, French Protestant refugees established France's first American colonies, one on the coast of South Carolina and the other in Florida.
The settlements didn't last long.
On September 20, 1565, 500 Spanish soldiers from St. Augus tine attacked and then hanged all the men over the age of fifteen.
Women, girls, and young boys were spared.
The Spanish commander told the Catholic king that he had killed all the French.
The survivors of the French fleet were told by the Spanish commander to abandon Prot estantism and swear their allegiance to Catholicism.
His soldiers killed them all.
The Spanish established settlements in New Mexico, Texas, and California.
The settlements were neglected by Spanish colonial officials from the beginning.
Civil liberties and notions of equal treatment were not in New Spain.
Colonists had no freedom of speech, religion, or movement.
The military officers, bureaucrats, wealthy landowners, and priests were appointed by the king.
It was not possible for settlers to travel within the colonies without official permission.
The caravan of 250 colonists, including women, children, horses, goats, sheep, and 7,000 cattle, began moving north from the mountains above Mexico City in 1598.
It took eighteen months for wagon trains to travel to Mexico City.
The local Indians were referred to as the "Pueblos" by the Span ish because of their terraced, multistoried buildings.
Farmers like Hopis and Zunis used irrigation to water their crops.
The Hopis, Zunis, and other peoples of the Pueblo sought peace rather than war and were often raided by Apaches.
The goal of Spanish colonialism was to find gold, silver, and other valu able commodities while forcing the Native Americans to adopt the Spanish religion and way of life.
There was little gold or silver in New Mexico.
There wasn't enough corn and beans to feed the Spanish invaders.
Each year, Indians pay taxes to the Spanish authorities in the form of a yard of cloth and corn.
The Spanish focused on religious conversion once they realized New Mexico had little gold.
The Indians were forced to work the fields they used to own.
They did personal tasks for the priests and soldiers.
The Indians were forced to attend church services if they didn't work hard enough.
A French visitor said that it made them think.
A mission would be secularized after ten years.
The land would be divided among the Indians, the mission chapel would become a church, and the inhabitants would be given Spanish citizenship.
The Indians welcomed the Spanish as witches.
They tried to use the European invaders as allies.
The Acoma Pueblo revolted in Decem ber 1598, killing eleven soldiers and two servants.
Onate's response was even worse.
The survivors were slaves.
The children were separated from their parents and moved into a Catholic by Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala, mission, where they saw a Dominican Catholic friar forcing a native woman to weave.
Few Spanish women traveled to New Spain in the 16th century.
They had to be married and have a husband with them.
Mestizos were the majority in Mexico and New Mexico by the 18th century.
The Spanish adopted a more inclusive social outlook toward the Indians than the English did in their colonies along the Atlantic coast after widespread interbreeding and intermarriage.
Most colonial officials were mestizo, so they were less likely to belittle or abuse the Indians.
Many Native Americans claimed to be mestizo in order to improve their legal status and avoid paying annual tribute.
Santa Fe became the capital of New Mexico in 1608 after the Spanish government decided to turn the state into a royal province.
It was the first permanent seat of government in the United States.
By 1630, there were fifty Catholic churches and monasteries in New Mexico.
During the 17th century, Roman Catholic missionaries in New Mexico claimed that 86,000 people had embraced Christianity.
As the Spanish stripped the Indians of their ancestral ways of life, resentment increased.
In 1680, a charismatic Indian spiritual leader named Pope organized a massive rebellion of warriors from nineteen vil ages.
The Indians painted for war, burned Catholic churches, tortured and executed 21 priests and 400 Spanish settlers, and forced the 2,400 survivors to flee.
The greatest defeat Indians have ever inflicted on Euro pean efforts to conquer the New World was the Pueblo Revolt.
It took twelve years for the Spanish to regain control of New Mexico.
The opportunity was given to Indian rebels to acquire Spanish horses.
Horses spread across the Great Plains by 1690, when they were in Texas.
Indians used dogs as beasts of burden before the arrival of horses.
It was difficult to find enough meat to feed the dogs.
The prairies of the Great Plains were a great environment for horses.
Acquiring horses gave the Indians on the Great Plains a new source of power.
The Indians were much more effective hunters and war riors because horses could haul up to seven times as much weight as dogs.
Horses became a sign of wealth and prestige when they became a form of Indian currency.
On the Great Plains, a warrior's status reflected the number of horses he owned.
The more horses, the more wives he could support and the more buffalo robes he could exchange for more horses.
The Indians and the Spaniards were fighting on equal terms by the late 17th century.
The Indians of the Southwest and Texas were able to sustain their cultures for the next 300 years because of this.
They were among the most feared fighters in the world on horseback.
The essential role horses played in the plains life is shown in the hide painting.
The Arapaho, Cheyenne, Comanche, Kiowa, and Sioux reinvented themselves as horse centered cultures.
They became nomadic buffalo hunters.
A bull buffalo is five feet tall at the shoulder and can weigh more than a ton.
Every part of the buffalo was used by Indians, from meat for food, hides for clothing, shoes, bedding, and shelter, to muscles and tendons for thread and bow strings, to bones for tools, and hair for headdresses.
They used tongues for fly swatting.
The buffalo hides were tanned by women and girls.
Indian hunters began practicing polyg amy because more wives could process more buffalo carcasses.
Plains Indians raided other tribes in search of brides because of the rising value of wives.
The introduction of horses on the Great Plains brought prosperity and mobility, but also caused more conflicts among the Plains Indians.
The Indians on horseback killed more buffaloes than the herds could replace.
The horses and buffaloes competed for food.
Indians were able to travel farther and meet more people because of the horse- centered cultures.
The spread of infectious diseases has increased.
The arrival of horses improved the quality of life.
The world's most extensive empire was developed by the Spanish after 1492.
It spanned southern Europe and the Netherlands, as well as the Western Hemisphere and parts of Asia.
The Spanish rulers overreached.
The religious wars of the 16th and 17th century killed millions, created anti- Spanish feelings among the English and Dutch, and helped bankrupt the Spanish government.
The Spanish Empire grew so large that it taxed the government's resources.
New Spain gradually developed into a settled society with the same class structure as the home country.
New Spain was an important part of the empire, but less interested in creating self- sustaining colonial communities than in removing gold, silver, and copper.
Spain did not encourage a lot of settlers to populate New Spain.
Spain's colonial system was a disaster for the peoples of Africa and the Americas.
After Columbus arrived in the New World, the Spanish explorers, conquistadores, and priests imposed a cruel system of economic exploitation and dependence on the native peoples.
The Spaniards have shown no consideration for these people, and I have been there from the beginning.
The lust for empire brought decadence and decline to Spain and much of Europe.
Portugal, France, England, and the Netherlands began their own explora tions and exploitation of the New World after Catholic Spain's conquests in the Western Hemisphere.
The French were the first to pose a serious threat.
French pirates were attracted to Spanish treasure ships sailing home from Mexico, Peru, and the Caribbean.
The French began explorations in North America.
Giovanni da Verrazano was sent across the Atlantic by the French king.
Verrazano ranged along the coast from Cape Fear, North Carolina to Maine.
He was killed by Caribbean Indians on a second voyage.
The first French effort at colonization in North America was led by Jacques Cartier, who began in the next decade.
The St. Lawrence River is the boundary between Canada and New York.
Twice he traveled to Montreal and once to Quebec, where a short lived French colony was settled in 1541-1542.
After midcentury, France plunged into religious civil wars, and the colonization of Canada had to wait for the arrival of Samuel de Champlain.
Over thirty seven years, Champlain led expeditions from France to Canada and never lost a ship.
Spanish power in the New World was under threat from the Dutch and English.
The Netherlands had seventeen provinces in 1566.
The Dutch began rebellions against Spanish Catholic rule in the second half of the 16th century.
Thousands of English soldiers were sent to support the Dutch in their battle with Queen Elizabeth.
The Dutch revolt was a series of uprisings in different provinces at different times.
Each province had its own laws and institutions.
The Spanish did not officially recognize the Dutch Republic until 1648.
From the beginning of the Protestant revolt in the Netherlands, the Dutch captured Spanish treasure ships in the Atlantic and carried on illegal trade with Spain's colonies.
While England's Queen Elizabeth steered a course to avoid war with Spain, she desperately sought additional resources to defend her island nation.
English raids on Spanish ships and settlements continued for twenty years before war erupted between the two nations.
Philip II, the king of Spain who was Elizabeth's brother- in- law and fiercest opponent, had enough and began scheming an invasion of England.
It was the best invasion fleet in history.
The Armada left for England on May 28, 1588.
The English navy had ninety warships.
The heavy Spanish ships could not compete with the speed and agility of the English warships.
The English fleet chased the Spanish ships through the English Channel.
The Spanish fleet was swept into the North Sea, a disaster that destroyed scores of warships and thousands of men.
The victory strengthened the Protestant cause.
The storm that smashed the Spanish fleet seemed to be a sign that God favored the English.
Elizabeth refused to divide her power, despite the fact that many people wanted to marry her.
Elizabethan England had begun an epic transformation from a poor, humiliated, and isolated nation into a mighty global empire by the end of the six teenth century.
Before the battle with the Spanish Armada, English attempts to colonize America began.
Sir Walter Raleigh was asked by Queen Elizabeth to organize a colonizing mission on the North American coast.
The Outer Banks of North Carolina were discovered by his expedition.
Governor John White led an expedition of about a hundred colonists, including twenty- six women and children, in 1587.
White left behind his daughter Elinor and granddaughter Virginia Dare, the first English child born in the Americas, when he returned to England after helping launch the settlement on Roanoke Island.
The naval war with Spain delayed White's return to Virginia.
The Roanoke colony was abandoned when he returned in 1590.
White deduced that the settlers had set out for the island ofCROATOAN, where friendly Indians lived, after seeing the word "CROATOAN" carved on a post at the entrance to the vil age.
They might have been killed by Indians or Spaniards.
According to the most recent evidence, the "Lost Col ony" was unable to grow enough food to survive because of the bad weather.
Most of them went north to the southern shores of the bay, where they lived for years until Indians killed them.
When Queen Elizabeth died in 1603 there were no English settlements in North America.
The only colonial outposts on the continent were trolled by the Spanish.
The English, as well as the French and Dutch, would soon develop their own colonial empires, inspired by the success of the Spanish in exploiting the New World.
Hunter- gatherers crossed the Bering Strait by foot and settled the length and breadth of the Americas.
The warfare component was an important part of the culture and led to alliances with European settlers.
Europeans were interested in the larger world by the 1490s.
The agricultural feudal system in Europe was undermined by warfare, plagues, and famine, and in its place arose a middle class that monarchs could tax.
The estates and cities were ruled by princes.
Scientific and technological advances led to the creation of better maps and navigation techniques.
The critical component of global trade and world power was the naiches.
Spanish victories were ensured by European diseases first introduced to the New World by Columbus.
The Portuguese and Spanish imported enslaved Africans into the Americas as the Indian popula tion declined.
Cultures were destroyed in the Americas.
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