We decided to show the full, unabbreviated configurations to provide more practice for students who want it, but we also decided to list the coreabbreviated electron configurations.
Determine if an electron is gained or lost.
The last orbital gains or loses an electron for main group elements.
Samarium trication loses electrons.
The members of a group have the same number and distribution of electrons.
There are other chemical properties on the periodic table.
The metallic character of the atoms increases when we move down a group.
At the top of group 16 (6A), oxygen is a gas; at the middle of the group, selenium is a semiconducting solid; and at the bottom, polonium is a silver-grey solid that conducts electricity.
When we go across a period from left to right, we add a nucleus and electron to the valence shell.
The number of electrons in the valence shell is constant, but the principal quantum number increases as we go down the elements.
Understanding the electronic structure of the elements allows us to look at some of the properties that govern their chemical behavior.
As the electronic structure of the elements changes, these properties change as well.
The size of the atoms and ion is one of the factors.
The periodic trends discussed in this section can be explored in a visualization.
You can create three-dimensional versions of the periodic table with just a few clicks.
It is difficult to establish a definite size of an atom because of the quantum mechanical picture.
To determine their relative sizes that give roughly the same values, there are several ways to define the radius of atoms.
The electrons are being added to a region that is far away from the nucleus.
As we increase the distance of the electrons from the nucleus, the size of the atom must increase.
The trend is shown in Table 6.2 and.
The general trend is that the radii go down and up at the same time.
The implication is that atoms with more electrons have a smaller atomic radius.
Taking into account any electron-electron repulsions, this is the pull exerted on a specific electron by the nucleus.
Shielding is determined by the chance of another electron being between the nucleus and the electron of interest.
electrons in the same shell do not block the nuclear attraction experienced by each other as efficiently as core electrons
The stronger pull experienced by electrons on the right side of the periodic table makes them closer to the nucleus.
The easiest way to remove the outermost electrons is because they have the highest energies, are shielded more, and are farthest from the nucleus.
The OpenStax book is free and can be found at http://cnx.org/content/col11760/1.9 electrons are added first.
Predict the order of increasing the radius.
Ge Fl is the symbol for flerovium, 114 element, not fluorine, so it increases as we move down a group.
As we move across a period, the radius decreases.
The trends are put together.
An example of a small atom is fluorine.
The size of an ion is described by the ion radius.
It is 68 pm.
Due to the lost electrons, the radius for a cation is smaller than the parent atom, while the radius for an anion is larger.
Cations with larger charges are smaller than cations with smaller charges.
An anion is formed by the addition of electrons to an atom.
The time is 170 pm.
The larger the principal quantum numbers, the larger the radii.
The number of protons determines the size of a isoelectronic atom.
The second ionized energy is what is needed to remove the second electron.
The removal of the third electron requires a certain amount of energy.
IE values are always positive because energy is required to remove electrons from atoms.
It is easier to remove the electron from larger atoms if it is farther from the nucleus.
The ionization energy should decrease as the size increases.
We would expect first ionization energies to decrease down a group and to increase over time.
There are some deviations from the trend.
Even though the nuclear charge of boron is greater than that of beryllium, the ionization energy of boron is less.
Each time a new subshell begins, we see a small deviation from the predicted trend.
The first ionization energy of the elements is plotted against their atomic number.
This version of the periodic table shows the first ionization energy of elements.
There is a deviation when the orbitals are more than one-half filled.
Despite the trend in increasing IE1 values, the first ionized energy for oxygen is less than for nitrogen.
It is more difficult to remove an electron from a cation than it is to remove an electron from a neutral atom.
It is more difficult to remove an electron from an ion with a lower charge than it is to remove an electron from a cation with a higher positive charge.
There is an increase in the color change for each element.
The core electrons are harder to remove than the valence electrons.
Sc and Ga both have three valence electrons, so the rapid increase in ionization energy occurs after the third one.
Predict the order of increasing energy for the following processes: IE1 for Al, IE1 for Tl, IE2 for Na, and IE3 for Al.
IE1(Al) IE3(Al) requires more energy because the cation Al2+ exerts a stronger pull on the electron than the neutral Al atom.
The removal of a core electron is a much higher energy process than the removal of valence electrons.
We get: IE1(Tl) IE1(Al) IE3(Al) IE2(Na).
The process can be either endothermic or exothermic.
When the atom accepts an electron, energy is released and many of the elements have negative values.
For some elements, energy is required for the atom to become negatively charged and the value of their EA is positive.
Just as with ionization energy, subsequent values are associated with forming ion with more charge.
Adding an electron to an anion can create a -2 ion, and so on.
As the effective nuclear charge of the atoms increases, it becomes easier to add an electron across a series of atoms.
We found that as we went from left to right, they became more negative.
The electronic structure of the groups can be used to understand the exceptions found in group 2 (2A), group 15 (5A), and group 18 (8A).
The initial relative stability of the electron configuration can disrupt the trend.
We might expect the atom at the top of each group to have the largest effective nuclear charges, because their first ionization potentials suggest that these atoms have the largest effective nuclear charges.
As we move down a group, we can see that the second element in the group is the best.
2 shell and large electron-electron repulsions.
The highest value of any element in the periodic table is found in chlorine.
There is a -322 kJ/mol of fluorine.
The nucleus is attractive to the electron, but there is also repulsion from the other electrons present.
The electron-electron repulsions are reduced because it occupies a considerably larger region of space.
The chlorine atom accepts an additional electron more readily than the entering electron.
The periodic table has electron affinity values for selected elements.
The properties discussed in this section are central to understanding chemical reactivity.
It is much easier to form fluorine anions than it is to form cations.
The ability to be formed into sheets depends on the electrons that can be removed easily.
It is easier to remove an electron that is farther away from the nucleus if we move down a group.
Light is an example of a wave travelling.
Other wave phenomena include standing waves.
The wavelength of standing waves is limited to some characteristic lengths.
This OpenStax book is available for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11760/1.9 and it shows an interference pattern that comes from interference of the waves.
The properties of particles are shown by the radiation.
The light shows both wavelike and particle-like behavior.
X-rays, visible light, microwaves, and radio waves interact differently with matter and have very different practical applications.
By heating it, exciting radiation can be generated.
The light can be emitted from the sun or specific types of excited atoms.
Blackbody radiation can be approximated with the distributions of the continuous spectrum.
The spectrum of hydrogen can be obtained by passing a light through a tube of hydrogen gas.
The spectrum was simple enough that an empirical formula could be derived from it.
The blackbody problem, the photoelectric effect, and the spectrum of atoms were paradoxes from the late 19th and early 20th centuries that could not be explained by classical mechanics and classical electromagnetism.
The classical theories were superseded by quantum theories as a result of the resolution of the paradoxes.
The model of the hydrogen atom was created using the quantization ideas of Einstein and Planck.
The hydrogen atom has a model that explains the connection between quantization and emission.
The electron is moving in a circle around the nucleus.
He said that the electron was restricted to certain areas.
The absorption or emission of photons can be achieved by transitions between allowed orbits.
When an electron moves from a higher-energy to a more stable state, energy is released in the form of a photon.
A photon of energy is needed to move an electron from a stable to a more excited one.
The energy of an electron can be calculated using the Bohr model.
Particles act as macroscopic objects.
The properties of a particle and a wave can be seen in microscopic objects.
Their exact trajectory can't be determined.
Orbitals are also called atomic wavefunctions.
The distribution of the probability of finding the electron in a particular region is described by the squared magnitude of the wavefunction.
There are areas in an atom where electrons are most likely to be found.
There are three quantum numbers for an atomic orbital.
The shape or type of the orbital is described by this quantum number.
No two electrons in the same atom can have the same set of values.
The Pauli exclusion principle and the Hund's rule can be used to determine electron configurations and orbital diagrams.
Most of the chemical behavior of elements is caused by electrons in the outermost orbitals.
The periodic table has elements with similar electron configurations in the same group.
When half-filled or completely filled orbitals can be formed, there are some exceptions to the predicted filling order.
We can understand many periodic trends with electron configurations.
As we move left to right, the effective nuclear charge experienced by the electrons increases, and the electrons are pulled in tighter to the nucleus.
While the nuclear charge has remained constant, the number of electrons in the parent atom has changed.
Ionization energy decreases down a group and increases across a period because it is easier to remove an electron from a larger, higher energy orbital.
When electrons are placed into lower energy orbitals, they are more favorable for forming an anion.
As we move left to right across the table, the electron affinity becomes negative.
There are exceptions to the trends when dealing with completely filled subshells.
Neon atoms emit light that is produced by a red neon sign.
Refer to the spectrum produced by passing light from a neon lamp through a prism.
There is a radio station on the dial that broadcasts at a Frequency of 1.031 x108 s-1.
The emission spectrum of mercury vapor has a bright violet line.
The frequencies of the emission spectrum of cesium are 3.45 x 1014 and 6.53 x 1014.
The warmth we feel when we hold our hands up to a fire is due to the fact that the radiation in the photons of IR is responsible for it.
The photons will warm other objects.
A single visual signal is sent to the brain from the eyes of certain reptiles.
There is a free OpenStax book available at http://cnx.org/content/col11760/1.9.
The larger the NA, the smaller the spot on the disk.
NA is the average in a typical Blu-ray system.
Disks have an outside diameter of 120mm and a hole of 15mm.
The eV is a convenient unit of energy.
It is the amount of energy that an electron gains when it is subjected to a potential of 1 watt.
Determine the lowest energy possible, in joules, for the electron in the Li2+ ion using the Bohr model.
The lowest energy for the electron in the He+ ion can be determined using the Bohr model.
The spectrum of calcium is more complicated than the spectrum of hydrogen.
Show and label the axes.
Show and label the coordinates.
You can identify monatomic ion of at least four transition elements by reading the labels of the products.
Write the electron configurations of the cations.
If you want to identify monatomic ion of at least six main group elements in the products, read the labels.
Write the electron configurations of the cations and anions.
Predict the electron configurations of the ion.
The OpenStax book is free and can be found at http://cnx.org/content/col11760/1.9.
The cattle did not thrive in one area of Australia.
An investigation showed that there wasn't enough cobalt in the soil.
There are two possible cationic forms of Thallium.
The more stable compounds are the +2 compounds.
Nuclear medicine uses the radioactive isotopes of cobalt-60 and iui-131.
Write the complete configuration of each isotope.
Predict which has the smallest atomic radius based on their positions in the periodic table.
Predict which of the following has the largest atomic radius: Li, Rb, N, F, I.
Predict which has the largest first ionization energy by taking their positions in the periodic table.
Predict which has the smallest first ionization energy by taking their positions in the periodic table.
List the following atoms based on their positions in the periodic table.
List the following atoms based on their positions in the periodic table.
List the following ion in order of increasing radius: K+, Ca2+, Al3+, Si4+.
In order of increasing radius, list the following ions.
The number of protons and electrons present in each of the ion can be compared to rank them in order of increasing radius.
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