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35.1 Gas-Exchange Surfaces -- Part 1
They have more red blood cells per body weight than we do, they have more oxygen-storing proteins in their muscles, and they have an effective diving response.
Animals have a variety of strategies for delivering oxygen and removing carbon dioxide.
The path of oxygen from the human nose to the alveoli of the lungs can be traced.
Oxygen is transported from the lungs to the tissues by blood.
Carbon dioxide is transported to the lungs by the blood.
The physical process of diffusion is what takes place in gas exchange.
The gas-exchange region must be moist, thin, and large in relation to the size of the body for external respiration to be effective.
Some animals are small and shaped in a way that allows the gas-exchange surface to be the surface of the animal.
The gills and lungs in aquatic animals are specialized for external respiration.
Delivery of oxygen to the cells is promoted when the blood contains a respiratory pigment, such as hemoglobin.
Oxygen enters the mitochondria, where cellular respiration takes place, regardless of the way in which gases are delivered to the cells.
The cells of these animals may lack the power of the mitochondria, but they still have structures similar to the ones used by monastries to perform cellular respiration in the absence of oxygen.
If internal respiration does not happen, life ceases for most animals.
It's more difficult for animals to get oxygen from water than from air.
Only a small amount of oxygen is present in the same volume of air as water.
Water is denser than air.
Terrestrial animals use less energy carrying out gas exchange than aquatic animals.
Terrestrial mammals only use 1-2% of their energy output for that purpose, while fish use 25% of their energy output to respire.
In comparison to their size, hydrians and planarians have a large surface area.
It is possible for most of their cells to exchange gases.
In hydras, the outer layer of cells is in contact with the outside environment, and the inner layer can exchange gases with the water.
The hydra uses its body surface for gas exchange.
The body surface is large compared to the animal.
The earthworm uses its body surface for respiration because the capillaries come close to the surface.
An earthworm keeps its body moist by secreting mucus and releasing fluids.
The worm is adapted to stay in damp soil during the day when the air is dry.
The gills that extract oxygen from a watery environment are found in aquatic animals.
The organisms use different mechanisms to pump water across the gills.
The fish have gills.
There is a tracheal system that delivers oxygen to the insect's cells.
Terrestrial animals have large lungs with a large total external respiration surface.
The tadpoles of the frog have lungs that are saclike and live in the water.
Most salamanders rely on the skin for hydration and respire to some extent through it.
The lungs of birds and mammals are divided into small passageways and spaces.
Human lungs have a surface area of about 70 square meters, which is 50 times the surface area of the skin.
Air has a drying effect on respiratory surfaces compared to water.
When the air has a relative humidity of less than 50%, a human loses 350 liters of water per day.
To keep the lungs from drying out, air is moistened as it moves through the passageways leading to the lungs.
Animals with gills use a variety of ways to breathe.
Water passes through the gills of clams and squids when it is drawn into the mantle cavity.
The gills are located in the thoracic chambers in crustaceans.
The water moves because of the action of specialized appendages near the mouth.
The operculum is closed when the mouth is open.
After the mouth closes and the opercula opens, the pharynx draws water from the gill arches.
The gills of fishes are extensions of the pharynx.
The gills on the outside of the gill arches are folded into a plate.
Half of the oxygen in the water is captured at an equilibrium point.
As blood gains oxygen, it always encounters water with a higher oxygen content.
A countercurrent mechanism prevents an equilibrium point from being reached.
The operculum protects the delicate gills.
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