After the fourth century, many Christians chose monasticism as a substitute for martyrdom because they were upset by the worldliness of the Church.
The life of the monk or nun was often described as "white" martyrdom, as opposed to the "red" martyrdom of the person who gave his or her life for the faith.
The church leaders in the West supported this trend.
He established a monastic community in North Africa.
The scholarly, who lived in the same period, gave up a comfortable life in Rome to become a hermit.
All books other than the Scriptures were contemptuous of the earlier hermits.
Anthony was an uneducated man who believed that all a Christian needed was a sound mind.
His attitude was in line with the teachings of Jesus.
Like Jesus, Paul put faith and love above reason and learning.
He carried his library with him to the Holy Land because he couldn't leave his house.
He decided that he must be either a "Ciceronian" or a "Christian" because of his passion for the classics.
He gave up his attachment to pagan literature.
He was frightened by visions of Roman dancing girls as soon as he stopped studying.
He tried to beat his thoughts by starving.
He hit upon the idea of learning Hebrew.
He believed that the study would be good for the Lord because it was in Hebrew.
His visions began to fade because of his mental concentration.
He was able to look at women without being attracted to them.
He persuaded many of the noble ladies of Rome to turn their lives to Christian purity when he was called to Rome on Church business.
He and a rich widow named Paula founded several monastic communities in Bethlehem for men and women.
The most famous literary work was a translation of the Bible into Latin from the Hebrew and Greek sources.
The monks and nuns were set to work on scholarly projects.
An important precedent was established by his success in turning monasticism into a productive literary enterprise.
monasteries helped safeguard the cultural heritage of the West by preserving and copying manuscripts and providing basic schooling for the clergy during the Middle Ages.
Benedict of Nursia was the most influential founder of European monasticism.
The son of a noble Italian family, he began to follow Anthony's example early in life.
He fled to the hills because he was sick of the vice he saw in Rome.
He became famous because he attracted other young men who wanted to share his way of life.
He left his solitary cave and established several small communities for his disciples because he was convinced that asceticism was better practiced in groups.
It has been rebuilt many times, most recently after the Second World War, and it still stands on a hill overlooking the town of Cassino, between Rome and Naples.
There was a set of regulations drawn up by Benedict.
The ideals of love, humanity, and piety were reflected in the Benedictine Rule.
There was a balance between group activities and solitary meditation.
The most widespread pattern of monastic life in the Christian world was founded by Benedict of Nursia.
After Benedict's death, the monastery was repeatedly destroyed by barbarian invaders, Muslim raiders, and Allied bombing.
Benedict's Rule is still followed by the monks of Monte Cassino.
Any man or woman who was free was able to commit his or her life to the rule.
After a year of testing, aspiring monks or nuns took three vows: chastity, poverty, and obedience.
They had to remain on the grounds of the monastery unless they were given permission to leave.
The monk or nun gave up their private property and freedom for the chance of living a life more pleasing to God and of gaining salvation through discipline.
Benedict felt that control was made for the best in the monastic community.
Benedict advised the monks to take care in selecting the Abbot, who was chosen to serve for life.
The abbot was given advice on how to govern.
Benedict said that the abbot should "exalt mercy over judgement".
If he becomes jealous or suspicious, he will have no rest, and he should always be aware of his own flaws.
The abbot was warned against shutting his eyes to the vices of the monks.
In dealing with a monk who is rebelling, the abbot should first correct him and then exclude him from his brothers.
If the steps supported by prayer did not cause the person to obey, the abbot could use the lash and expel him from the monastery.
The standard monastic routine was set down in detail by Benedict.
The monks were called to their knees seven times a day because of the saying of Divine Office.
They were to observe the rule of silence while they ate.
They were to be alone in their cells for certain hours of the day.
The monks had to spend a lot of their time growing and preparing food since each monastery depended on its own resources.
Benedict thought that from four to eight hours a day were set aside for manual labor, which would provide a wholesome balance to their intellectual and spiritual activities.
The monks helped the sick, orphans, and widows, learned the arts of agriculture, and preserved ancient handicrafts in their workshops.
Their services to Western civilization during the Middle Ages were immense, for they also served as missionaries, preserved and copied ancient writings, and carried on scholarly tasks after the example of Jerome.
The primary aim of the Benedictine houses was to serve God.
The model for Christians outside the cloister was provided by the monastics, who devoted their lives to prayer and charity.
They exercised a corrective influence on the more worldly priests.
The existence of the Church depended on the regular clergy.
Gregory the Great, who became bishop of Rome in 590 and was a molder of the medieval papacy, was one of the most vigorous and devoted leaders of the Church.
The survival of Western civilization was dependent on the three forces within Christianity: the papacy, secular clergy, and the monastic orders.
organization and doctrine are covered in the books by Hinson, Hinson, and Vallee.
The World History Resources Center at http://history.wadsworth.com/west_civ/ offers a variety of tools to help you succeed in this course.
The conversion to Christianity of the peoples of the Roman Empire and the Germanic Tinvasions of the empire's western territories were completed by 500.
The conquest of the Middle East and North Africa by Islam about a century later brings us to a new phase of Western history.
The "in-between times" separated the ancient from the modern during the Middle Ages.
When a new and distinctive civilization emerged on the soil of Europe, it spread throughout that region and reached the highest levels of cultural achievement.
The era when the Christian faith and Church spread through Europe and set the tone of Western civilization in every activity was known as the era of religion.
Western civilization came into closer touch with the other civilizations of the Eastern Hemisphere than before, but was inferior to them in wealth, practical knowledge, and social organization.
The Christian Europe of the Middle Ages was very different from the West of the present day.
The modern West is separated from the Middle Ages by a new series of spectacular shifts in civilization that began about two hundred years before 1500 and went on for more than a century afterwards.
Christian Europe is seen as the most alien of the West's past because of these shifts.
Many of the things that are thought of as Medieval in the bad sense were common features of traditional civilization.
Disease, poverty, and torture were just as common in ancient Greece and Rome as they were in the Middle Ages.
Christian Europe shared many of its good features with other civilizations.
Many of its cultural and intellectual traditions are from ancient Greece and Rome.
The present-day West is the civilization with which Christian Europe has the most in common.
There is a long list of basic features of the West of today.
In the Middle Ages, Western civilization was made up of many ethnic groups, each with its own version of a common culture, and competing fiercely with each other.
English, Spanish, and most of the other languages of the West were written in Christian Europe.
The earliest forms of representative government were practiced by England, France, Russia, and many other present-day European countries.
Christianity is the main religion of the West.
In medieval times, practices such as arranging lists in alphabetical order so as to make it easier to find, or putting hops into beer to make it taste bitter, began.
The modern West is a descendant of the Christian Europe of the Middle Ages.