17 Stalinist Russia and International Communism -- Part 2
Statues, posters, and books glorifying him became a cult around him after he resisted flattery and adulation.
In 1924, Petrograd was renamed Leningrad.
His embalmed remains were put on public display so that Russia's people could venerate him.
His mausoleum was a further example of the contradictions of this regime, as it was led by modern revolutionaries who despised the superstitions of the past but were perfectly willing to exploit them when it was useful to do so.
If Lenin had lived a normal life, he would have been able to guide the country in a more positive way.
The country faced such immense challenges that no single man, however capable, could have avoided brutally harsh means in confronting them, according to others.
In January 1924, it was obvious that none of the lieutenants could replace him.
The principles seemed to violate the principles he had just recently proclaimed, because they were mired in ambiguities and only worked when Lenin was present to provide their "correct" interpretation and application.
Stalin claimed that the photograph was used to emphasize the close relationship he had with Lenin.
It was significant that he had dominated the party by the power of his intelligence and personality, not by violence or the threat of it to those within the party who differed with him.
However, that non-violent domination within the party stood in stark contrast to the dictatorship his party exercised over the Soviet population, in which violence was essential - with little hesitation in exercising it, even against the working class, based on the firm belief that the party's leaders were on
It can be seen that a new model of how the party could be led was emerging, one that didn't rely on violence at first.
Stalin quietly established a group of lieutenants loyal to him through his post as party secretary.
He did not do it through intellectual prowess, but through his control of appointments.
Party bosses built party machines in western-style democracies, but it was more important in a one-party state.
The pose at the time of Leon Trotsky was very different.
He was admired for his intellectual brilliance and celebrated for his decisive roles in the revolution and civil war, but he was also notorious for his arrogance, to say nothing of his contempt for many other party leaders.
Trotsky was disliked and feared by many party leaders, despite being venerated by the party rank and file.
Stalin played upon the apprehensions other leaders had about Trotsky's ambitions, and he often brought up the ferocious doctrinal controversies with Lenin before 1914.
At the time of Lenin's death, Trotsky could have called upon the ultimate source of power, but he did not.
He allowed his military posts to slip from his grasp in early 1925 because he was so intent on demonstrating his lack of Napoleonic ambitions.
The failure of the other Bolshevik leaders in not recognizing Stalin's cunning was shared by Trotsky.
Anti-Stalinists would mock Stalin's lowkey, simple, and repetitive prose as "Dzhugashvilese" (after his original Georgian name), but the simple truth.
Many intellectuals in the party couldn't comprehend the amount of intelligence.
Stalin's control of the party, as measured in various party votes, had become exten sive by 1927, and so too was his control through the Comintern of the Communist parties outside Russia.
He was not well known for his role in the revolution and had not even attended the Comintern's first meetings.
Stalin had not spent a lot of time in Europe.
In the 1920s, he was not in a position to make the kind of appointments to the leading positions of western Communist parties that he was making in the various branches of the Party in Russia.
The debate about how much Stalin corrupted the principles of Leninism has been going on for a long time.
The Comintern was ruled by the members of the Communist parties, but it was also ruled by a party elite that was completely against dissent.
Stalin became the epitome of "the revolution" for those who had failed to make their own revolution because he was the leader of the Soviet Union.
The Stalinization of the non-Russian Communist parties involved promoting a different class of leaders, men of lowerclass origins, less educated and less intellectual than those who had headed the parties in their first few years.
The trend inside Russia in the 1920s for "workers from the bench" to be promoted to the upper ranks of the party had previously been dominated by bourgeois and "cosmopolitan" intellectuals.
There was a lot of symbolism in Stalin's victory over Trotsky as well as his subsequent triumph over his two temporary allies in the anti-Trotsky party alliance.
The leaders of the Communist parties in Europe and Russia were becoming more proletarian and less Jewish.
The number of Jews charged with treason in the Purge Trials of 1937-8 made the symbolism even more pronounced by the late 1930s.
It makes no sense to describe Stalin as exploiting hostility to Jews at this point in time, given the large number of Jews in leadership positions.
Even if not Russian, Stalin was more acceptable.
The apprehensions about "rising" Jews had assumed a political form in Europe by the 1880s.
Once it was believed that "Judeo-Bolshevism" would spread to the rest of Europe, the apprehensions rose to a peak.
Class identity and right-wing political conviction became intertwined with racial fears and fantasies.
The position, visibility, and presumed power of Jews in Europe had been significantly enhanced since 1917, even while the mass of the Jewish population remained poor, powerless.
At this point, the Balfour Declaration was more significant in potential than reality, but Jews were thought to have had a major role in getting it accepted, as they later played a major role at the Paris Peace Conference in the composition of the minority treaties.
The new Weimar Republic was seen as a "Jew Republic" by its enemies because of the role Jews played in its formation.
The constitution was written by a Jewish legal expert, and Jews were more prominent in the initial governments than they had ever been under the monarchy.
Russia, previously without a single Jew in any position of government authority, had become a country in which Jews played a dominant role.
Review flashcards and saved quizzes
Getting your flashcards
You're all caught up!
Looks like there aren't any notifications for you to check up on. Come back when you see a red dot on the bell!