Ivan Pavlov conditioned his dogs to salivate at the sound of a bell.
An animal learns to associate one of its own behaviors with a reward or punishment and then avoids it.
The best lab studies in operant conditioning were done by B. F. Skinner.
A FAP is a sequence of behaviors that are usually carried out once initiated.
Tinbergen is associated with FAPs.
They thought he was their mother.
Choice B explains them well.
Individual animals sacrifice themselves for the well-being of the entire group or population.
Scientists think that it increases the overall fitness of the group.
altruistic individuals sacrifice themselves for others who have similar genes and will pass those genes onto the next generation Genetic drift is not relevant to this question because of an accidental change in a population.
Choices C and D don't accurately describe this behavior and how it fits into the theory of natural selection.
Complex behaviors in other animals are innate.
According to the question, there are no learning or teaching opportunities when there are solitary animals.
The animal wouldn't survive the learning process if it learned to dig a tunnel by trial and error.
Since groundhogs are solitary animals, choices B and C are incorrect.
Choice D is not consistent with what is said in the question.
Choice A is not correct because there are no consequences for being needed.
The honeybee dies after stinging an animal.
One honeybee cannot teach another how to die in order to save the group.
He benefits from the fact that his genes are the only ones that get passed down.
Agonistic behavior is meant to be cautious.
Territoriality is described by Choice C.
The hydra would die if it stopped feeding.
altruistic behavior may save kin that are carrying genes similar to those in the individual that sacrificed itself
Both groups of salmon swam back to where they hatched.
Choice D is incorrect because there is no aggressive behavior described in the question.
The blackcaps' ability to navigate must have been inborn.
Females are staying close to their relatives because when they send out an alarm and risk their lives, they are doing it for close relatives.
Kin selection is a phenomenon.
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