ChAPTER 41 -- Part 5: Globalization and Resistance
Efforts to tally the economic effects of globalization are complex.
Unemployment rates of 30 percent or more were common in parts of Africa that lost manufacturing jobs to global competition.
New international sex trafficking in women and children, as well as the sale of body organs, showed the desperation of some societies.
Reductions in government services in the name of free-market principles contributed to new problems.
The rates of child labor rose in south and southeast Asia.
New global opportunities allowed for an increase in per capita income in places like China and India.
The growth rates in parts of Africa after 2000 were encouraging.
There were winners and sinners in economic globalization, even within industrial societies like the United States.
There were gaps between the poor and those with higher incomes.
Urban slums and exploited labor expanded as a middle class grew in Latin America, India, and China.
The use of "guest workers" from Turkey and north Africa in Europe was one of the ways in which international patterns of migration developed.
Patterns in the 1990s were built on previous trends.
The continued gap between rapidly growing populations in Latin America, Africa, and parts of Asia maintained high levels of exchange.
By the 1990s, a few areas, including Italy, Greece, and Japan, had stopped internal population growth, which meant that new labor needs, particularly at the lower skill levels, had to be supplied by immigration.
Japan brought in worker groups from the Philippines and southeast Asia in order to avoid too much influx.
In key urban and commercial centers, migration into Europe and the United States produced truly multinational populations.
At least 25 percent of Americans came from households where English was not the first language by the year 2000.
Ten percent of the French population in 2003 were Muslim.
Local populations were afraid of foreigners and worried about job competition, which was an important source of tension here.
There was a new opportunity for cultural inspiration, not just for new laborers.
In world history, migration has been going on for a long time.
New levels of migration from distant regions were novel.
In the cities of North America, western Europe, or the Persian Gulf states of the Middle East, there was a mixture of migrants and locals.
Many migrants, returning home to Turkey or India on vacation or permanently, brought back new styles and ideas, maintaining their own commitment to at least two different cultures.
The pace of cultural exchange and contact around the world accelerated at the end of the 1990s thanks to global technologies and business organization.
Art shows, symphony exchanges, scientific conferences, and Internet contact increased.
In a single season, music conductors and artists held posts around the world, sometimes juggling commitments among cities like Tokyo, Berlin, and Chicago.
With little regard for national origin, science laboratories col ed with researchers from around the world.
The spread of fast-food restaurants from the United States, headed by McDonald's, formed one of the most striking international cultural influences from the 1970s onward.
By the end of the 20th century, the mixture of peoples and cultures that had become a prominent feature of world history were beautifully illustrated by this group of Muslim children in a French school.
In 2007, more than 10% of the French population was Islamic.
Riots broke out in Islamic areas of French cities in 2006 due to the gap between opportunities available to immigrants and those available to the majority population.
In the 1990s, the company entered an average of two new nations per year.
In 1998 it was operating in more than 100 countries.
"makadonaldo" first opened in Tokyo's world famous Ginza in 1971 and quickly gained its largest foreign audience.
McDonald's entry into the Soviet Union in 1990 was a sign of the end of cold war rivalries and the growing Russian desire for international consumer goods.
The restaurants won a lot of patronage despite their high prices.
Increasing exposure to American movies and shows was involved in cultural globalization.
Movie and amusement park icons like Mickey Mouse had international currency.
Western beauty standards, based on models and film stars, won wide exposure in international beauty contests.
Western images and sounds were spread by MTV.
There were holidays on an international level.
American-style Christmas trappings, including gift giving, lights, and Santa Claus, spread not only to countries of Christian background, like France, but also to places like Muslim Istanbul.
The more traditional Catholic holiday of Al Saints' Day was displaced by American Halloween trick-or-treating.
During the month of self-denial, Muslims began to include greeting cards and presents for children.
The American jingle "happy birthday," with its implications about individualism and entertainment for children, was translated into almost every language.