The European colonies of North America had a number of crises in the last quarter of the 17th century.
There were sometimes ruthless conflicts between rich and poor, free and slave, settler and Indian, and members of different religious groups.
The colonies mirrored struggles within and between European empires.
The language of freedom was seized upon by aggrieved groups.
Although each conflict had its own local causes, taken together they added up to a general crisis of colonial society in the area that would become the United States.
In 1675, an Indian alliance launched attacks on farms and settlements that were encroaching on Indian lands in southern New England.
It was the most violent and dramatic warfare in the region.
The Wampanoag leader Metacom, known to the colonists as King Philip, was the mastermind of the uprising, although most tribes fought under their own leaders.
By this time, the white population was larger than the Indians.
The fate of the New England colonies was up in the air for a while.
Indian forces attacked half of New England's towns.
Twelve were destroyed in Massachusetts.
The line of settlement was pushed back almost to the coast as refugees fled eastward.
Out of a population of 52,000, 1,000 settlers and 3,000 Indians perished in the fighting.
The tide of battle turned and the Indians' power was broken.
Some people remained loyal to the colonists despite the uprising.
The role of the Iroquois in providing military aid to the colonists helped solidify their alliance with the government of New York.
The rebels were punished by both colonial and Indian forces.
Men, women and children were killed or sold into slavery in the West Indies after Metacom was captured and executed.
The survivors fled to Canada or New York.
About 2,000 Indians who had converted to Christianity and lived in communities under Puritan supervision suffered.
Many perished from disease and lack of food when they were removed from their towns to Deer Island.
The image of Indians as bloodthirsty savages became ingrained in the New England mind after both sides committed atrocities.
King Philip's War made it possible for white New Englanders to expand their access to land.
The region's Indians were dispossessed of this freedom.
King Philip was the chief of the Wampanoags.
He was killed in a war against the English in which he objected to their attempts to convert Indians to Christianity.
The conflict began in 1675 with an Indian uprising.
White New Englanders were given more freedom and the Indians were dispossessed of the region.
As the New World became a battleground in European nations' endless contests for wealth and power, England moved to seize control of Atlantic trade, solidify its hold on North America's eastern coast, and exert greater control over its empire.
The colonies were seen as an important source of wealth for the mother country by the middle of the 17th century.
According to the theory of mercantilism, the government should regulate economic activity to promote national power.
Special bounties, monopolies, and other measures should be used to encourage manufacturing and commerce.
More gold and silver should flow into the country if trade is controlled.
That is, exports of goods, which generated revenue from abroad, should be more than imports, which have to be paid for by foreigners.
The role of colonies was to serve the interests of the mother country by exporting raw materials and manufactured goods from home.
Territorial plunder was not the foundation of empire.
The first navigation act was passed in 1651 to wrest control of world trade from the Dutch, who profited from free trade with all parts of the world.
Additional measures were taken in 1660 and 1663.
England's new economic policy, mercantilism, was based on the idea that England should control the profits from the English empire.
Tobacco and sugar were the most valuable colonial products and had to be transported in English ships and sold in English ports, although they could be re-exported to foreign markets.
Customs duties were paid when European goods were shipped through England.
English merchants, manufacturers, shipbuilders, and sailors were able to take advantage of the benefits of colonial trade.
American colonies would make money since their ships were considered English.
The rise of New England's shipbuilding industry was stimulated by the navigation acts.
The English colonies in eastern North America were populated by English people while the French colonies in the north and west were populated by French people.
The restoration of the English monarchy in 1660 led to a new period of colonial expansion.
The Royal African Company was given a monopoly on the slave trade.
The number of English colonies in North America doubled within a generation.
England gained control of Dutch trading posts in Africa during the Anglo-Dutch war in 1664, when New Netherland was seized.
James, the duke of York, was given full and absolute power by Charles II to govern the colony.
New Netherland was always peripheral to the Dutch empire.
The Dutch surrendered New Netherland without a fight in 1664 after fighting to retain their holdings in Africa, Asia, and South America.
English rule turned this small military base into an important imperial outpost, a seaport trading with the Caribbean and Europe, and a launching pad for military operations against the French.
When the English took control of New York's European population rose to 20,000.
English rule reduced the freedom of some New Yorkers.
The terms of surrender guaranteed that the English would respect the religious beliefs and property holdings of the colony's many ethnic communities.
The Dutch tradition of married women conducting business in their own names was ended by English law.
The wills of Dutch immigrants to England directed more attention to their sons than to their wives and daughters.
By the end of the 17th century, most of the female traders in New Amsterdam had left the area.
More restrictive attitudes towards blacks were introduced by the English.
In New York City and New Amsterdam, residents who obtained the status of "freeman," obtained by birth in the city or by an act of local authorities, were given special privileges, including the right to work in various trades.
In a reversal of Dutch practice, the English expelled free blacks from many skilled jobs.
Others benefited from English rule.
The duke of York and his appointed governors continued the Dutch practice of giving huge land grants to their favorites.
One of colonial America's most tightly-knit landed elites was formed by five New York families who owned nearly 2 million acres of land.
The position of the Confederacy of upstate New York was strengthened by English rule.
After fighting the French in the Caribbean, Sir Edmund Andros, who had been appointed governor of New York, formed an alliance known as the Covenant Chain, in which the imperial ambitions of the English and Indians reinforced one another.
The British attacked the French and their Indian allies in New York after the Five (later Six) Iroquois Nations helped to clear parts of the city of rival tribes.
The claim to authority over Indian communities in the vast area stretching to the Ohio River was recognized by Andros.
The Indians around the Great Lakes and Ohio Valley regrouped in the 16th century and were pushed to the east by the French.
The policy of careful neutrality adopted by the Iroquois Nations at the end of the century was to play the European empires off one another while continuing to profit from the fur trade.
Many colonists began to complain that they were being denied the "liberties of Englishmen" because of the Charter of Liberties.
Governors appointed by the duke of York were the first to rule without a representative assembly.
New Englanders used to self-government on Long Island.
The first act of the elected assembly was to draft a Charter of Liberties and Privileges.
The charter required that property owners in New York City be elected every three years, as well as traditional English rights such as trial by jury and security of property, as well as religious toleration for all Protestants.
The charter reflected an effort by newer English colonists to assert dominance over older Dutch settlers by establishing the principle that the "liberties" to which New Yorkers were entitled were those enjoyed by Englishmen at home.
After the establishment of Maryland in 1632, there was no new English settlement in North America.
Charles II gave eight proprietors the right to establish a colony to the north of Florida as a barrier to Spanish expansion.
The first settlers arrived in 1670.
It was an extension of the island of Barbados.
Wealthy planters in the mid-seventeenth century sought opportunities in Carolina for their sons because of a shortage of land in the Caribbean.
The early settlers of Carolina sought Indian allies by offering guns for deer hides and captives, a policy that led to widespread raiding among Indians for slaves to sell.
Almost 10,000 Florida Indians were enslaved in one series of wars between 1704 and 1706, most of them shipped to other mainland colonies and the West Indies.
Between 1670 and 1720, the number of Indian slaves exported from Charleston was larger than the number of African slaves imported.
The Yamasee and Creek rebelled in 1715 because of the huge debts they had incurred in trade with the settlers and slave traders.
The Yamasee uprising was crushed, and most of the remaining Indians were driven out of the colony into Spanish Florida, where they launched raids against English settlements.
The proprietors of Carolina issued the Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina in 1669, which proposed to establish a feudal society with a hereditary nobility.
The proprietors provided for an elected assembly and religious toleration in order to attract settlers quickly.
The headright system offered 150 acres for each member of an arriving family and 100 acres for male servants who completed their terms.
The baronies were not established in the Fundamental Constitutions.
Carolina was an extremely hierarchical society because of slavery.
Slaveowners were promised "absolute power and authority" over their human property and imported slaves were included in the headright system.
This allowed anyone who settled in Carolina and brought slaves with them to immediately acquire large new landholdings.
In its early days, the economy centered on cattle raising and trade with local Indians.
Carolina was an epicenter of mainland slavery until planters discovered the staple--rice--that would make them the wealthiest elite in English North America.
Pennsylvania was the last English colony to be established.
William Penn thought it would be a good place for people facing religious persecution in Europe to enjoy spiritual freedom.
Penn's father was a creditor of Charles II.
The Penn family was granted a large tract of land south and west of New York by the king in order to cancel his debt to them.
Penn, a member of the Society of Friends, was concerned about the persecution of his coreligionists in England.
He assisted a group of English Quakers in purchasing half of what became the colony of New Jersey from Lord John Berkeley, who had received a land grant from the duke of York.
The West Jersey Concessions, one of the most liberal of the era, was largely due to Penn.
An elected assembly was created with a broad speach and established religious liberty.
Penn was hoping that West Jersey would become a society of small farmers.
He hoped that Pennsylvania could be governed according to the principles of theQuaker, including the equality of all persons, including women, blacks, and Indians, before God and the individual conscience.
The first group of whites to repudiate slavery was made possible by the fact that liberty was a universal entitlement.
Penn treated Indians with a unique consideration in the colonial experience, purchasing land before reselling it and offering refuge to tribes driven out of other colonies by warfare.
When more than one tribe claimed it, he purchased the same land twice.
Peace with the native population of America was essential because of the lack of a militia until the 1740s.
The local Indians were promised protection from rival tribes who claimed domination over them.
Penn's most fundamental principle was religious freedom.
Thousands of free inhabitants of England were deprived of the right to worship as they wanted because of attempts to enforce religious Uniformity.
Although Jews were barred from office by a required oath affirming their belief in Jesus Christ, there was no established church in Pennsylvania and attendance at religious services was voluntary.
The code of personal morality was upheld by the Quakers.
Private religious belief may not have been enforced by the government.
The foundation of Penn's social order would be a virtue.
It shows the prominent place of women.
Penn had the power to determine the colony's form of government, so he established an appointed council to originate legislation and an assembly elected by male taxpayers and former indentured servants.
The rules made most of the males eligible to vote.
Penn sold all of the colony's land to settlers at low prices.
Like other proprietors, he expected to make a profit, but he never did.
Pennsylvania did if Penn did not prosper.
Most of the early settlers were from the British Isles.
Pennsylvania's religious toleration, healthy climate, and inexpensive land, along with Penn's aggressive efforts to promote the colony's advantages, attracted immigrants from all over western Europe.
The deteriorated of freedom for others was caused by the Pennsylvania freedoms that were offered to European immigrants.
Penn's Indian policy would eventually conflict with the colony's successful efforts to attract settlers.
The opening of Pennsylvania led to a decline in the number of indentured servants choosing to sail for Virginia and Maryland.
The policy of Great Britain and other imperial powers is to benefit the mother country.
The English Parliament passed a law in 1650 to control colonial trade and bolster the mercantile system.
The English and the Iroquois nations formed an alliance in the 1670s.
The Yamasee and Creek Indians Revolt was caused by rising debts and slave traders' raids against Carolina settlers.
Many Indians were sent to Florida.
Early proponents of abolition of slavery and equal rights for women were members of a religious group in England and America.
The colonization of the New World did not intend to rely on African slaves for the bulk of its labor force.
After the spread of tobacco, the demand for workers led to the trade in slaves.
Compared with indentured servants, slaves had many advantages.
The protections of English common law were not claimed by Africans.
Slaves' terms of service never expired and they were not a population of unruly landless men.
Their children were slaves, and their skin color made it difficult for them to escape.
African men, unlike their Native American counterparts, were accustomed to intensive agricultural labor, and they had encountered many diseases known in Europe and developed resistance to them, so were less likely to succumb to epidemics.
Irish, Native Americans, and Africans were viewed with disdain by the English.
They described these strangers as savage, pagan, and uncivilized and compared them to animals.
"Race" is a concept that was not fully developed in the 17th century.
"racism" was based on the belief that some races are superior to others and should be allowed to rule over them.
Civilization versus barbarism was thought to be the main line of division within humanity.
Anti-black stereotypes flourished in England in the 17th century.
Poor Englishmen were seen as inferior to Africans because of their color, religion, and social practices.
Indians were deemed uncivilized by most English.
Indian slavery never became viable due to the rapid decline of the Indian population, which made it easy for Indians to run away.
Indians were sold into slavery in the Caribbean.
It's difficult to enslave people on their native soil.
Slaves are usually transported from elsewhere to their place of labor.
Slavery has existed for a long time.
It was important to the societies of ancient Greece and Rome.
After the collapse of the Roman Empire, slavery lasted for centuries in northern Europe.
The Germans, Vikings, and Anglo-Saxons all had slaves.
Slavery in the Mediterranean world lasted into the fifteenth century.
Christians were taken from ships and enslaved by pirates from the Barbary Coast of North Africa.
Slavery and a slave trade predated the coming of Europeans, and small-scale slavery existed among Native Americans.
The institution that developed in the New World was vastly different from the one that existed in these instances.
In the Americas, slavery was based on the plantation, an agricultural enterprise that brought together large numbers of workers under the control of a single owner.
It was necessary to police the system rigidly because of the imbalance.
The creation of a boundary between slavery and freedom was encouraged.
The death rate among slaves in Africa was much higher than in the US, and labor on slave plantations was much more demanding.
Slavery was associated with race in the New World, drawing a line between whites and blacks.
Slaves in the Americas who became free were always carried with them in their skin color the mark of bondage, a sign that they were not equal to free society.
Slavery in the West Indies was made possible by a sense of Africans being inferior to the English.
North American slavery was not created by prejudice.
For this institution to take root, planters and government authorities had to be convinced that African slaves were the best way to solve their labor shortage.
The shipping of slaves from Africa to the New World became a major international business during the 17th century.
Only a few were brought to England's mainland colonies.
By the time plantation slavery became a major feature of life in English North America, it was already entrenched elsewhere in the Western Hemisphere.
In Brazil, a colony of Portugal, huge sugar plantations were built by slaves from Africa.
Spain became the owner of the West Indian islands in the 17th century.
The first part of the 17th century saw English emigration to the West Indies outnumber those to North America.
In 1650, the English population of the West Indies surpassed that of all of North America.
The first settlers established mixed economies with small farms.
Sugar planters forced white farmers to leave island after island.
White indentured servants were discontented as well.
The depiction of a scene in the Caribbean is not the only similarity between the work and the well-to-do in Britain.
The free women in the painting are light-skinned but not white.
The woman at the center looks directly at the viewer.
With the Indian population having been wiped out by disease, and with the white indentured servants unwilling to do the back-breaking work of sugar cultivation, the massive importation of slaves from Africa began.
In 1645, the tiny island of Barbados was home to around 11,000 white farmers and indentured servants.
Plantations turned to slave labor as sugar cultivation increased.
Half of the island's population was European and the other half was African.
The slave population was concentrated on some 750 sugar plantations.
The white population did not change.
The West Indian economy was dominated by sugar plantations manned by hundreds of slaves by the end of the 17th century.
Sugar was mass-marketed to consumers in Europe.
International trade used to be dominated by precious metals like gold and silver and luxury goods like spices and silks.
Sugar was the most important product of the British, French, and Portuguese empires, and New World sugar plantations produced immense profits for planters, merchants, and imperial governments.
The jewel of the French empire was Saint Domingue.
Barbados generated more trade than any other English colony.
Slavery developed slowly in North America compared to its rapid introduction in Brazil and the West Indies.
Slaves cost more than indentured servants, and the high death rate among tobacco workers made it unprofitable to pay for a lifetime of labor.
The majority of the labor force was made up of servants from England.
There were only a small number of blacks in the region as late as 1680.
The white plantation owners who dominated politics and society were the most important social distinction of the 17th century.
Spain's American empire took these laws with it.
Slaves were given opportunities to claim their rights even though they were often violated.
The Catholic Church encouraged masters to free slaves.
The law of slavery in English North America would be more repressive than in the Spanish empire because of the question of whether slaves could obtain freedom.
The legal status of the blacks in the region remained ambiguous for much of the 17th century.
The first Africans arrived in Virginia in 1619.
The Portuguese ship carrying slaves from Africa to Mexico was seized by British pirates who were sailing under the Dutch flag.
There were small numbers in subsequent years.
The first black arrivals were almost certainly treated as slaves, but at least some managed to become free after serving a term of years.
From the beginning, racial distinctions were enacted into law.
Blacks were not allowed to serve in the Virginia militia.
Sex outside of marriage between Africans and Europeans was punished more severely by the government.
The poll tax was imposed on African but not white women.
In Virginia and Maryland, free blacks were able to file lawsuits and testify in court, and some even purchased white servants or African slaves.
It is not known how Anthony Johnson, who arrived in Virginia as a slave in 1620s, obtained his freedom.
He owned slaves and hundreds of acres of land on Virginia's eastern shore by the 1640s.
Blacks and whites worked side by side in the tobacco fields, sometimes running away together and establishing intimate relationships.
Blacks were held as slaves for life in the 1640s.
White servants are listed by the number of years of labor, while blacks have no terms of service associated with their names.
The laws of Virginia and Maryland did not mention slavery until the 1660s.
Black and white servants differed greatly as tobacco planting spread and the demand for labor increased.
Authorities wanted to improve the status of white servants in order to counteract the perception that Virginia was a death trap.
Blacks' access to freedom waned.
In the case of a child whose parents were free and one slave, the status of the offspring followed that of the mother according to a Virginia law.
Religious conversion did not release a slave from bondage according to the Virginia House of Burgesses.
Christians could own other Christians as slaves.
In order to prevent the growth of the free black population, authorities sought to define all offspring of interracial relationships as illegitimate, punishing white women who begat children with black men, and prohibiting the freeing of any slave unless he or she was transported out of the colony.
Even though the black population was small, notions of racial difference were ingrained in the law.
The law in British North America treated everyone with African ancestry as black, unlike the Spanish empire.
The shift from white indentured servants to African slaves as the main plantation labor force was accelerated by one of the most dramatic confrontations of this era.
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