For decades after they believed the Versailles treaty was a harsh dictated peace and should be revised or repudiated, almost all Germans and many other observers immediately.
Liberals, Marxists, Jews, and other "November criminals" surrendered in order to seize power.
Many scholars currently view the treaty's terms as reasonable, as historians have recently begun to reexamine them.
They say that much of the German anger toward the Allies was based on perception.
The fall of Austria-Hungary, the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, and the revolution in Russia gave Germany an even stronger power in eastern Europe.
The peace terms Germany had intended to impose on the Allies if it won the war were much harsher than the Versailles treaty.
It was only twenty years later that Germany became the economic and military powerhouse it is today.
The majority of the war on the western front was fought in France.
The French believed that heavy German compensation was an economic necessity that would allow them to realize their goal of security.
Germany was Great Britain's second-best market before the war, and after the war it was essential to the British economy.
The British and French were at odds over their League of Nations mandates in the Middle East and the British were suspicious of France's army.
Germany had to pay an enormous sum of 33 billion gold marks in annual installments after the Allied commission completed its work.
In that year, the Weimar Republic made its first reparation payment.
In 1922, the Weimar Republic was wracked by rapid inflation and political assassinations, and proposed a three-year moratorium on compensation.
The British were willing to take a break, but the French were not.
The French decided they had to either call Germany's bluff or see the peace settlement dissolved.
The most serious international crisis of the 1920s occurred in January 1923 when French and Belgian armies occupied the Ruhr district.
The people of the Ruhr were ordered to stop working by the German government because of their patriotism.
The whole of Germany was sealed off by the French in order to prevent starvation.
The summer of 1923 saw a great test of wills between France and Germany.
French armies couldn't collect money from striking workers.
The German government was forced to print money because of the French occupation.
German money lost its value quickly.
In 1919 one American dollar equaled nine German marks, and by November 1923 it took over 4.2 trillion German marks to purchase one American dollar.
Many Germans felt betrayed when their savings were wiped out.
They blamed the Western governments, their own government, big business, Jews, and the Communists for their misfortune.
They were prepared to follow right-wing leaders after the crisis.
In August 1923, as the mark's value fell and political unrest grew throughout Germany, Gustav Stresemann became German chancellor.
Stresemann had a compromising attitude.
He called off the peaceful resistance campaign in the Ruhr in October and asked for a re-examination of Germany's ability to pay.
After five years of hostility and tension, Germany and France decided to try compromise and cooperation.
An international committee of financial experts met in 1924 to reexamine the effects of slavery.
Germany's yearly compensation was reduced and linked to the level of economic prosperity in the country.
Germany would receive large loans from the United States in order to promote German recovery, as well as to pay back the large sums they owed the United States.
The circular flow of international payments was complicated and risky, but it worked for a while, facilitating a worldwide economic recovery in the late 1920s.
The 1923 World War I commission reduced Germany's yearly compensation, made payment dependent on German economic prosperity, and granted Germany large loans from the United States to promote recovery.
The political settlement was matched by the economic settlement.
European leaders met in Locarno in 1925.
Both France and Germany solemnly pledged to accept each other's borders, and both Britain and Italy agreed to fight if one invaded the other.
Stresemann agreed to settle boundary disputes with Poland and Czechoslovakia by peaceful means, and France promised those countries military aid if Germany attacked them.
Hopes for international peace were strengthened by other developments.
Germany joined the League of Nations and fifteen other countries signed the Pact.
The hope that the United States would accept its international responsibilities was encouraged by the pact.
European domestic politics gave hope.
Germany's republican government appeared to be on the verge of collapse during the Ruhr occupation.
The moderate businessmen who dominated the various German coalition governments believed that economic prosperity demanded good relations with the Western powers and they supported parliamentary government at home.
A majority of Germans supported republican democracy.
There were sharp political differences in the country.
The right and the army were populated by unrepentant nationalists and monarchists.
An obscure politician named Adolf Hitler, who had become leader of an obscure workers party, proclaimed a "national socialist revolution" in a beer hall in July 1921.
Hitler's plan to take control of the government was poorly organized.
The Social Democrats were accused of betraying the revolution by members of Germany's Communist Party.
The majority of the working classes supported the socialist, but nonrevolutionary, Social Democrats.
Hitler's political ideology is contained in his autobiography.
Germany's situation was similar to France's.
The workers' support was fought for by communists and socialists.
Business interests were represented in the government after it was elected in 1924.
France's great accomplishment was the rapid rebuilding of its war-torn northern region, and good times continued until 1930.
Britain faced challenges after 1920.
Unemployment was around 12 percent throughout the 1920s.
Unemployment benefits were provided by the state.
After World War II, Britain established a welfare state in order to keep living standards from declining.
The trend toward greater social equality continued during the war.
The Labour Party ruled the country in 1924 and 1929-1935 and was led by Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald.
The Labour Party wanted a gradual and democratic move toward socialism so that the middle classes were not overly frightened by the benefits of socialism.
After a bitter guerrilla war, Britain granted southern, Catholic Ireland full autonomy in 1922.
The leading democracies had cause for cautious optimism in the late 1920s due to developments in international relations and domestic politics.
The prewar ideals of peace, prosperity, and progress were expected to return after the war.
The war caused a lot of social, economic, and psychological upheaval, and many men and women felt adrift in an age of anxiety and crisis.
Most people in the West believed in the Enlightenment philosophy of progress, reason, and individual rights before 1914.
The rise of the living standard, the taming of the city, the spread of political rights to women and workers, and the growth of state-supported social programs were all visible as the century began.
Many thought that there were laws of society similar to the laws of science.
Before the war, some philosophers, such as the German Friedrich Nietzsche (NEE-chuh), called faith in reason into question.
The revolt against certainties was accelerated by the First World War.
Austrian philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein (VIHT-guhn-shtighn) was associated with logical positivism, which argued that life must be based on facts and observation.
Others were looking for answers.
A search for moral values in a terrifying and uncertain world was the focus of a group of highly diverse and even contradictory philosophers.
They didn't think that a supreme being had established humanity's fundamental nature and given life's meaning.
"Man's existence precedes his essence," said Jean-Paul Sartre.
He is nothing to begin with.
He won't be anything until later, and then he will be who he is.
The name given to a philosophy that stresses the meaninglessness of existence and the search for moral values in a world of terror and uncertainty.
The loss of faith in human reason and continual progress led to a renewed interest in Christianity.
Between 1920 and 1950, intellectuals began to turn to religion after World War I.
These believers felt that religion was a good answer to terror and anxiety because they shared the same loneliness and despair.
One began to believe in heaven because they believed in hell.
Some comfort was offered by a belief in unchanging natural laws.
These laws allowed useful solutions to more and more problems.
The established certainties ofNewtonian physics were challenged by a series of discoveries around the turn of the century.
The British physicist J. J. Thomson's 1897 discovery of subatomic particles proved that atoms were not stable and unbreakable.
Marie Curie and her husband, Pierre, discovered radium in1934 and demonstrated that it does not have a constant atomic weight.
The German physicist Max Planck (1858-1947) showed in 1900 that subatomic energy is not in a steady stream as previously thought.
The speed of light is the only constant for all frames of reference in the universe according to his theory of special relativity.
Einstein's theory that matter and energy are interchangeable, and that even a particle of matter has enormous levels of potential energy, became the basis for the atomic bomb.
The "heroic age of physics" was opened in the 1920s by one of its leading pioneers, Ernest Rutherford.
Rutherford split the atom in 1919.
Some discoveries raised new doubts about reality.
Millions of people in the 1920s and 1930s were alarmed by the implications of the new theories.
The new universe was strange and troubling, as well as being distant from human experience and human problems.
In the twentieth century, many of the fanciful visions of science fiction came true.
A professor who has split the atom has destroyed his building and neighborhood in the process.
Scientists used the atom in bombs to destroy cities during the Second World War.
Questions about the power and potential of the human mind were assumed to be special because of the uncertainty of the universe.
Sigmund Freud's findings and speculations were disturbing.
Rational thinking by the conscious mind was assumed to be the cause of human behavior before Freud.
Freud developed a different view of the human psyche by analyzing dreams and hysteria.
The primitive, irrational unconscious, which he called the id, was driven by sexual, aggressive, and pleasure-seeking desires and was locked in constant battle with the mind's two other parts.
Freud believed that human behavior was a product of a compromise between instinctual drives and controls of rational thinking and moral values.
Freudian terms for the primitive, irrational unconscious, the rationalizing conscious, and the ingrained moral values that specify what a person should do.
Western literature was influenced by the intellectual climate.
Many writers in the twentieth century adopted a viewpoint of a single individual.
The novelists focused on the irrationality of the human mind.
The stream-of-consciousness technique was used by some novelists.
The idea of progress was rejected by some writers.
Creative artists rebelled against traditional forms at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th.
After the war, architecture, art, and music became more influential, meaning constant experimentation and a search for new expression.
The new architecture was pioneered by the United States.
The Chicago School of architects used cheap steel, reinforced concrete, and electric elevators to build skyscrapers and office buildings.
Frank Lloyd Wright's buildings were known for their sometimes radical design, their creative use of wide variety of materials, and their appearance being part of the landscape.
At the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, a variety of cultural movements rebelled against traditional forms.
German-speaking countries were the center of architectural leadership in Europe.
In 1919 Walter Gropius merged the schools of fine and applied arts at Weimar into a single school.
Good design for everyday life was emphasized by the Bauhaus movement and a building should serve the purpose for which it is designed.
The movement attracted students from all over the world.
Industrial products should serve the purpose for which they were made as well as possible.
Art took on a nonrepresentational character.
Artists have created unified human forms since the Renaissance.
Their faces are similar to African masks, reflecting the importance of non-Western artistic traditions in Europe in the early twentieth century.
Most of the major art styles of the early twentieth century were represented by Delaunay.
The Eiffel Tower is an icon of urbanization, the machine age, and is a radio tower.
His later paintings of the Eiffel Tower, such as the one shown here, draw on a much wider range of brilliant colors, reflecting aspects of a style known as Orphism, with which he is most closely identified.
Around 1910, the ultimate stage in the development of abstract, nonrepresentational art occurred.
Wassily Kandinsky turned away from nature completely.
Kandinsky said that the observer must learn to look at his pictures.
After World War I, radicalization accelerated.
German artists experienced the Great War and the Weimar Republic.
George Grosz's paintings were provocative, emotionally disturbing, and harshly satirical.
All accepted standards of art and behavior were attacked by Dadaism.
Many people were attracted to surrealism after 1924.
There are fantastic worlds of wild dreams and complex symbols painted by realists.
Modern music and painting have similar developments.
Composers were attracted by the emotional intensity of expressionism and depicted unseen inner worlds of emotion and imagination.
Modern composers arranged sounds without creating recognizable harmonies like abstract painters did.
The Austrian Arnold Schonberg (SHUHN-buhrg) was one of the modern composers who turned their backs on long-established musical conventions.
Motion pictures became the main entertainment of the world after the First World War.
In countries with dictatorships, motion pictures became powerful tools of indoctrination.
Sergei Eisenstein, the most famous of his film makers, and others dramatized the Communist view of Russian history.
Germany's rebirth as a great power under Nazi leadership was depicted in her film.
After the Second World War, motion pictures became the main entertainment for the world's population.
Motion pictures gave ordinary people a temporary escape from the hard realities of life.
After the war, popular culture was dominated by radio.
The first major public broadcasts were made in the United States and Great Britain.
National broadcasting networks were established by every major country.
Radio Argentina became the first formal radio station in the world in August of 1920.
Radios were revolutionary in that they were capable of reaching all of a nation's citizens at once, offering them a single perspective on current events and teaching them a single national language and pronunciation.
Political tensions across Europe increased at the end of the 19th century due to nationalism, militarism, and the alliance system.
The regional war that began in 1914 was sparked by the assassination of Ferdinand.
Four years of stalemate and slaughter followed.
Entire societies were mobilized for war.
Women earned more social equality.
European countries adopted socialism as a realistic economic plan.
Russian tsar Nicholas II abdicated in March 1917 after terrible losses on the eastern front.
The government that replaced him was controlled by moderate social democrats.
The second Russian revolution took place in November 1917.
The Bolsheviks established a radical Communist regime, smashed existing capitalist institutions, and posed an ongoing challenge to Europe.
A fragile truce was brought about by the "war to end all wars".
The Versailles treaty took away Germany's colonies, limited its military, and demanded war guilt.
The maps of Europe and the Middle East were redrew by separate treaties.
Germany was unrepentant and set the stage for World War II.
The European powers created a mandate system that caused more discontent among colonized peoples.
Moderate political leaders in the 1920s sought to create an enduring peace and rebuild prewar prosperity through compromise.
Germany experienced an economic recovery, France rebuilt its war-torn regions, and Britain's Labour Party expanded social services by the end of the decade.
These measures were shortlived.
The industrialization of war that killed millions shattered Enlightenment ideals and caused widespread anxiety.
Philosophers, artists, and writers used these anxieties in their work during the interwar years.
The escape offered by movies and the radio was fleeting.
After the guns went silent in 1918, the Great War continued to influence global politics and societies.
One must study the intrigues and treaties and the revolutions and upheavals that were associated with this first truly world war to understand the origins of many modern world conflicts.
The Second World War was more destructive than the first and contributed to a worldwide depression in Chapter 30.
The end of the Ottoman Empire in the Middle East allowed France and England to carve out territories that are still flash points for violence and political instability in the twenty-first century.
Nationalism took root in Asia because of Wilson's promise of self-determination.
The rise of ultranationalism in Japan, as well as the efforts of various nationalist leaders to throw off colonial domination, will be examined in Chapter 29.
America's entry into the Great War placed it on the world stage, a place it has not relinquished as a superpower in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries.
In 1919, Russia was 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 By the outbreak of World War II, Joseph Stalin had solidified Communist power, and the Soviet Union and the United States would play leading roles in defeating communism in Germany and Japan.
The Cold War that lasted for much of the twentieth century was fought at war's end.
Explain the significance of each item.
The war between Austria and Serbia should have been small.
The Paris Peace Conference has shaped world history to the present day.
An imaginative cultural investigation has won praise.
This masterful synthesis traces the revolution from its beginning to its end.
A concise history that includes Russian archives.
The Stalinist purges in the late 1930s ended the revolution according to Fitzpatrick.
A leading intellectual and cultural historian has a personal perspective on twentieth-century high culture.
The ten-episode series is based on a book by a renowned Great War historian.
Historians' views of the war, as well as a timeline and maps, are included in an eight-part series on each stage of the war.
One of the most powerful war films of all time is based on the novel by the same name and depicts the horrors of World War I trench warfare.
It won the Academy Award for Best Picture in 1930.
The story of the trial of three French soldiers accused of cowardice on the battlefield is based on a real-life event during the Great War.
The film is about the fight to get the vote for women in England before the Great War.