They tend to understand things according to the rules.
They are good at reading facial expressions and gestures.
Systemizers who have more difficulty reading facial expressions are those with ASD.
There are many studies that verify biology's influence.
50 to 70 percent of the time, the co-twin will be as well if one twin is diagnosed with ASD.
There is a heightened risk for a younger sibling of a child with ASD.
Many genes with more than 400 have been identified so far.
Random genetic changes in sperm cells may play a role.
A man under 30 may have a lower risk of fathering a child with ASD than a man over 40.
The brain's structure is being investigated by researchers.
The front of the brain has fewer fiber tracts connecting it to the back than normal.
There is less of the whole-brain synchrony that integrates visual and emotional information with underconnectivity.
Twins Johanna and Eva are related.
The brain's functioning is related to biology.
People without disabilities yawn after seeing others yawn.
They feel something of what the other is feeling when they see and imitate another's smiling or frowning.
Not so among those with ASD, who are less imitative and show less activity in brain areas involved in mimicking others' actions.
There are "broken mirrors" for the ASD.
They are looking at whether treatment with the hormone that promotes social bonding might improve social understanding in people with the condition.
Baron-Cohen and his Cambridge University colleagues collaborated with Britain's National Autistic Society and a film production company.
Knowing that television shows with vehicles have been popular among kids with ASD, they created animations with toy vehicle characters in a pretend boy's bedroom.
After the boy leaves for school, the characters come to life and have experiences that lead them to display various emotions.
The children were able to generalize what they had learned.
By the end of the intervention, their ability to recognize emotions on real faces was equal to that of children without ASD.
A research team at Cambridge University's Autism Research Centre introduced children with the condition to their emotions by showing them toy vehicles and human faces.
The children matched the correct face with the story.
He barks at Louise.
To see how Louise is feeling, point to the face.
Theory of mind focuses on understanding our own and others' mental states.
Babies develop an intense attachment to their caregivers from birth.
When given a parent's attention, infants prefer familiar faces and voices.
After about 8 months after object permanence emerges and children become mobile, they develop stranger anxiety.
The new face can't be integrated into the remembered faces of children this age.
One-year-olds cling tightly to a parent when they are frightened.
They shower the parent with smiles and hugs after being apart.
A powerful survival impulse that keeps infants close to their caregivers is the parent-infant bond.
Babies become attached to their parents because they are familiar with them.
Babies became attached to people who satisfied their need for food, according to psychologists.
This explanation was overturned by an accidental finding.
Babies 8 months and older are protected by a newly emerging ability to evaluate people.
The University of Wisconsin psychologists bred monkeys for their studies.
They separated infant monkeys from their mothers shortly after birth and raised them in individual cages, each with a baby blanket.
The monkeys became distressed when their blankets were washed.
The idea that attachment derives from an association with food was not accepted by the Harlows.
Two artificial mothers were created to pit the drawing power of a food source against the comfort of a blanket.
A bare wire cylinder with a wooden head and an attached feeding bottle was wrapped in terry cloth.
The monkeys preferred the comfy cloth mother.
When anxious, the monkey babies would cling to their cloth mothers.
The cloth mother's other qualities made her even more appealing.
Harry and Margaret Harlow raised monkeys with two artificial mothers--one a bare wire cylinder with a wooden head and an attached feeding bottle, the other a cylinder with no bottle but covered with foam rubber and wrapped with terry cloth.
Many psychologists were surprised by the Harlows' discovery that the infants preferred contact with the cloth mother.
The cranes learn to migrate by following their parents.
The cranes were hand-raised from eggs and imprinted on a cranecostumed pilot who guided them to winter nesting grounds.
One key to attachment is contact.
Familiarity is another thing.
Attachments based on familiarity form during an optimal period when certain events must take place to facilitate proper development in many animals.
When the first moving object they see is their mother, that period falls in the hours after hatching.
The young fowl follow her.
Konrad Lorenz looked at the attachment process called imprinting.
The ducks were sure to leave wherever Konrad went.
A bouncing ball, a box on wheels, and an animal of another species are some of the moving objects baby birds will imprint to.
This attachment is hard to reverse once formed.
Children do not imprint.
Children like to read the same books and watch the same movies.
They like to eat familiar foods, live in the same neighborhood, and attend school with the same friends.
Familiarity is a sign of safety.
Familiarity increases the amount of content.
For some people, a perceived relationship with God can be used as a base for exploration and a safe haven when threatened.
Attachment is the process by which we form emotional ties with others.
Certain animals that have a critical period early in their development where they must form their attachment in an inflexible manner are the only ones thatImprinting occurs in.
During their first six months, she observed mother-infant pairs.
She observed the 1-year-old infants in a strange situation with their mothers.
They play happily in their mother's presence.
When she returns, they seek contact with her.
Babies who are less likely to explore their surroundings may even cling to their mother.
They either cry loudly and remain upset or seem indifferent to her departure and return.
Those who noticed what their babies were doing and responded appropriately had infants who exhibited secure attachment.
Maternal unresponsive mothers who attended to their babies when they felt like doing so but ignored them at other times had infants who were attached to them.
More striking effects were produced by the Harlows' monkey studies.
The deprived infants were terrified when put in strange situations.
monkeys raised with surrogate mothers were overwhelmed when placed in strange situations without emotional security
"Remember, for every mistreated monkey there are a million children," Harry Harlow said, expressing the hope that his research would make people more aware of child abuse and neglect.
"No one who knows Harry's work could ever argue that a caring mother doesn't matter to a baby's development," said Deborah Blum.
So, caring parents are important.
Twin studies show that heredity and temperament affect attachment style.
It was pleasant, relaxed, and feeding and sleeping on predictable schedules.
To separate nature and nurture, we would need to vary parenting.
Dutch researcher Dymphna van den Boom came up with a solution to assign 100 children who were difficult to train to either an experimental group or a control group.
Only 28 percent of the control group infants were securely attached at 12 months of age.
Other studies have shown that intervention programs can increase parental sensitivity and infant attachment security.
Emperor penguin dads may lose half of their body weight during the two months they spend keeping an egg warm.
After mom returns from the sea, both parents take turns caring for the chick.
A growing number of dads are staying at home with their kids.
These examples show that researchers study mother care more than father care.
"Fathering a child" has meant impregnated and "mothering a child" has meant nurturing.
Fatherhood is more than just mobile sperm banks.
A father's love and acceptance have been compared with a mother's love in predicting their offspring's health and well-being in nearly 100 studies worldwide.
In one mammoth British study following 7259 children from birth to adulthood, those whose fathers were most involved in parenting achieved more in school even after controlling for other factors such as parental education and family wealth.
Increasing nonmarital births and the greater instability of cohabiting versus married partnerships has meant more father-absent families.
Today's co-parenting fathers spend more time with their children than their fathers did in 1965, with a doubling of the weekly hours spent with their children.
Children average better life outcomes if they are raised by both parents.
According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, what matters is competent, secure, nurturing parents regardless of their gender or sexual orientation.
Children's anxiety over separation from their parents peaks at 13 months.
They can be cared for at home, in day care, in North America, or in the Kalahari Desert.
Our pleasure in touching and holding those we love never ceases, as our capacity for love grows.
The mothers left the infants in an unfamiliar room.
The percentage who cried when the mother left peaked at 13 months of age, regardless of whether the infant had experienced day care.
Children who are securely attached to their parents approach life with a sense of basic trust in the world.
Basic trust was attributed to early parenting.
He believes that infants with loving caregivers form an attitude of trust rather than fear.
Our comfort with affection and intimacy is believed to be the foundation for our adult relationships.
People who have good relationships with their parents tend to have good relationships with other people.
If closely attached to their parents, students leaving home to attend college or university adjust well.
Children with mothers who are responsive tend to thrive.
Feelings of being attached to others may be one of two main forms.
People cling to their partners in romantic relationships because of an anxious attachment style.
The avoidant style decreases commitment and increases conflict.
Attachment styles can affect relationships with one's own children.
Anxious or avoidant tendencies have helped our groups detect or escape dangers for nearly half of all people.
There is no sadder research literature in psychology.
Babies locked away at home are often withdrawn and frightened.
The same is true of those raised in institutions without the stimulation and attention of a regular caregiver, as was tragically illustrated during the 1970s and 1980s in Romania.
Having decided that economic growth for his impoverished country required more human capital,Nicolae Ceausescu forbade abortion, taxed families with fewer than five children, and banned contraception.
The birthrate went up.
Many families had to leave their children at government-run orphanages because they couldn't afford them.
Child-to-caregiver ratios were often 15 to 1, so the children were deprived of healthy attachments with at least one adult.
After Ceausescu's 1989 execution, these socially deprived children had lower intelligence scores, reduced brain development, abnormal stress responses, and quadruple the rate of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder found in children assigned to quality foster care settings.
If raised in family homes, orphan children tend to fare better on intelligence tests.
For those placed at an early age, this is especially true.
The 250 children between the ages of one and five outnumbered the caregivers 15 to 1.
Mental toughness can be boosted by hardship short of trauma.
Growing up poor puts children at risk for some social pathologies, while growing up rich puts them at risk for other problems.
The risk of substance abuse, eating disorders, anxiety, and depression in affluent children is elevated.
Consider the possible silver lining when faced with adversity.
Your tendency to bounce back may strengthen your resilience.
Many people who experience abuse don't bounce back quickly.
The Harlows' monkeys were raised in total isolation and bore lifelong scars.
When placed with other monkeys their age, they either cowered in fright or lashed out.
Most of them were incapable of having sex when they reached sexual maturity.
Females who were artificially impregnated were often neglectful, abusive, and even murderers.
The unloving may become the unloved in humans.
The majority of abusive parents have reported being neglected or battered as children.
Some 30 percent of people who have been abused later abuse their children less than that found in the primate study, but four times the U.S. national rate of child abuse.
Like battle stressed soldiers, abused children's brains respond to angry faces with heightened activity in threat detecting areas.
In conflict-plagued homes, sleeping infants' brains show heightened reactivity to hearing angry speech.
Golden hamsters are usually placid, but if they are repeatedly threatened and attacked, they grow up to be cowardices.
Animals show changes in their brain chemical, which calms aggressive impulses.
Abused children who become aggressive teens and adults have a sluggish serotonin response.
Stress can increase reactions to later stress and cause stress-related disease by sensitizing the stress response system.
Young children who have survived abuse are at increased risk for health problems, psychological disorders, substance abuse, and criminality.
A study of 43,093 adults found that 8 percent had experienced physical abuse at least fairly often before the age of 18.
84 percent had experienced at least one mental health problem.
The greater the abuse, the greater the odds of anxiety, depression, substance use disorder, and attempted suicide.
Abuse victims are more likely to suffer from depression if they carry a variation of the stress-hormone production genes.
Behavior and emotion arise from a particular environment interacting with certain genes.
When our attachment bonds are severed, adults suffer as well.
A break produces a sequence.
Agitated preoccupation with the lost partner is followed by deep sadness and a return to normal living.
Newly separated couples are sometimes surprised by their desire to be near their former partner.
Detaching is not an event.
Attachment is the major social achievement of infancy.
Most children have an understanding and assessment of who they are by the time they are 12.
Parents wonder when and how this sense of self develops.
Charles Darwin said that selfawareness begins when we see ourselves in a mirror.
Researchers put a color on the girl's nose to see if she recognizes herself in the mirror.
Children reach out to touch their mirror image as if they are another child.
When they see a colored spot in the mirror, they touch their own noses.
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