Chapter 24 -- Part 3: Ideologies of Change in Europe
The problem was not a problem in the lower classes.
Natural children outnumbered legitimate children in most of the Alpine villages.
Before he could get married, the worker lived with another worker in free love.
In our middle-class society, an early marriage was not accepted.
The young man had to take care of his own "affairs" or adventures in an artificial interval of six, eight, or ten years between manhood and as society accepted it.
He didn't get a lot of opportunities in those days.
Only a few rich young men could afford to pay for a mistress to live in an apartment.
Only a few lucky young men were able to achieve the literary ideal of love of the times, which was an affair with a married woman.
The others helped themselves with shopgirls and waitresses, and this offered little inner satisfaction.
Prostitution was still the foundation of the erotic life outside of marriage, and it constituted a dark underground vault over which rose the gorgeous structure of middle-class society with its flawless facade.
The present generation has no idea of the extent of prostitution in Europe before the First World War.
It was more difficult to find prostitutes on the streets of a big city than it was to find them on the sidewalks because there were so many of them.
The bars with their "come-on" girls, the night clubs, the dance parlours with their dancers and singers, and the "closed houses" were added.
The same city, the same society, the same morality, that was indignant when young girls rode bicycles, and declared it a disgrace to the dignity of science when Freud in his calm, clear, and penetrating manner established truths that they did not wish to be true.
The world that defended the purity of womanhood allowed this cruel sale of women and even profited from it.
We shouldn't allow ourselves to be deceived by sentimental novels.
It was a bad time to be young.
The young girls were locked up under the control of the family, which hindered their free bodily as well as intellectual development.
The young men were forced to keep their secrets because of a morality that no one believed in.
All that could have made youth happy and joyous according to the laws of Nature was not allowed.
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Basic scientific inquiry was stimulated as researchers sought to understand how steam engines and blast furnaces actually worked.
From the 1830s onward, fundamental scientific discoveries were transformed into material improvements for the general population.
The study of the relationship between heat and mechanical energy was an example of the translation of better scientific knowledge into practical human benefits.
The fundamental laws of thermodynamics were formulated by physicists by midcentury and were applied to mechanical engineering, chemical processes, and many other fields.
Electricity became a form of energy in the 1800's.
This wistful painting of a Spanish square on a rainy day is a commentary on how scientific discoveries transformed urban life.
Coachmen wait atop their expensive hackney cabs for wealthy clients, while modern electric streetcars that carry the entire population converge on the square from all directions.
The development of electricity made it possible for the city to expand to the suburbs.
The importance of science on the popular mind was shown in articles in newspapers and magazines.
After 1850, the methods of science gained prestige.
The union of careful experiment and abstract theory was the only reliable route to truth and objective reality according to many educated people.
The idea that natural processes were determined by rigid laws won broad acceptance.
Europeans were fascinated with the idea of evolution and dynamic development in the 19th century.
Charles Darwin was the most influential evolutionary thinker of the 19th century.
He argued that small variations within individuals in one species allowed them to acquire more food and better living conditions and allow them to pass their genetic material to the next generation.
A number of individuals within a species became distinct enough that they could no longer interbreed successfully with each other.
Charles Darwin believed that life had evolved from a common origin through a process of natural selection.
The theory of natural selection was extended to humans by Darwin.
His findings reinforced the teachings of secularists such as Marx, who dismissed religious belief in favor of non-belief.
The theory of biological evolution was applied to human affairs by many writers.
Social Darwinism is the idea that the stronger will become powerful and prosperous while the weaker will be conquered or remain poor.
Powerful nations used this ideology to justify their actions.
The application of the theory of biological evolution to human affairs sees the human race as driven to ever- greater specialization and progress by an ongoing economic struggle that determines the survival of the fittest.
Society shaped science.
Nations sought "scientific" proof for their differences from one another, which meant proof of their own superiority.
Europeans were more advanced than southern Europeans.
Europeans were depicted as missing links between Chimpanzees and Africans.
Jews were seen as a separate and inferior race, not a religious group.
The commercialization and widespread use of electricity in the late 19th century made possible a wide range of new technologies, including telephones and telegraphs, radio, electric lights in public and private space, electric railroads, trams, and subways, and power plants.
Around the turn of the century, world fairs and expositions included a pavilion dedicated to the wonders of electricity, with electric light displays sponsored by local electric power companies.
The Palace of Electricity was at the 1900 Universal Exhibition in Paris.
The Russian poster depicts a princess of light with flowing locks and diaphanous gown, holding an electric bulb that illuminates the Russian Empire and then the rest of the globe.
There is a scene at the bottom that shows the Tauride Palace, which is "illuminated by Luks' lights" and suggests the revolutionary effect of electric light on public spaces.
The electrification of Great Britain was praised by an American journal.
Europe was not far behind.
This movement, which means so much for the future of all electrical industry, has occupied the close attention of a large proportion of electricity works managers and engineers.
The wire lamp is working wonders in reducing the cost of electric lighting on existing installations and that fact together with the very strong support that is being given by other influences, is making it easier to get electrical applications adopted in many places where it seemed impossible before.
The house is occupied by a tenant who is under special arrangement to admit the public between certain hours every day to demonstrate to them the benefits of electricity and their convenience.
Coal and gas are not used in the house.
The public doesn't know much about this popularizing work, so it's very necessary.
In 1858, British and U.S. engineers successfully completed the first trans-Atlantic telegraph cable.
telegraph cables circled the globe streetcars and subways made it easy to travel through urban areas.
The Gothic cathedral and Neoclassical triumphal arch that frame the central square in Milan are contrasted by the tracks and streetcars and the installation of electric streetlights.
You can use the sources above, along with what you have learned in class, to write a short essay about the effects of electrification on European society.
Radical reconstructions of politics and society were thought to be possible in cultural and artistic life by the French Revolution.
The Romantic movement was the most significant expression of this belief.
Romanticism was a revolt against the cold rationality of the Enlightenment and was characterized by a belief in emotional exuberance.
Romantic works explored the power of love and desire, as well as hatred, guilt, and despair.
Enlightenment thinkers embraced secularization and civic life, while Romantics embraced religious ecstasy and the hidden depths of the self.
The Romantics were against the growth of modern industry and industrial cities.
A movement in art, literature, and music is characterized by a belief in emotional exuberance and imagination.
The French Romantic painter Eugene Delacroix depicted dramatic, colorful scenes that stirred the emotions.
He painted people and places outside of Europe, such as women in a sultan's harem.
Europe's imperial ambitions in "exotic" and "savage" places in the 19th century are revealed in Delacroix's art.
The painting by Theodore Gericault evokes the horror and despair of sailors stranded on a makeshift raft, who vainly hail a passing ship.
There were 150 men who took refuge on the raft.
The great Romantic composers used a wide range of forms to create musical landscapes and evoke powerful emotion.
The first great Romantic composer is Ludwig van Beethoven.
A distinctive voice was found in poetry.
The Romantic fascination with fantastic characters, strange settings, and human emotions was exemplified by Victor Hugo's powerful novels.
The study of history became a passion.
The Enlightenment thought that the universe was static and mechanical, but that was not true.
The development of national ambitions was supported by historical studies.
Both literary Romanticism and early nationalism reinforced each other in central and eastern Europe.
The folk songs, tales, and proverbs that the cosmopolitan Enlightenment disliked were transcribed by the Romantics.
The Grimm brothers saved German fairy tales from oblivion.
Romantics helped convert spoken peasant languages into modern written languages.
Realism was a new artistic genre that began in the 1840s.
Realist writers believed that literature should depict life the same way it is.
Forsaking poetry for prose and replacing the personal, emotional viewpoint of the Romantics with strict scientific objectivity, the Realists simply observed and recorded.
Realists created fiction based on everyday life.
Many Realists focused on the working classes, which had been neglected in literature before this time, after a dissection of the middle classes.
Sex, strikes, violence, alcoholism, and shocking middle-class critics are topics the Realists put a microscope to.
The Realists' claims of objectivity did not prevent the creation of a definite worldview.
Emile Zola, the famous French novelist, and Thomas Hardy, the English novelist, were determinists.
They believed that human beings, like atoms, are components of the physical world and that all human actions are caused by unalterable natural laws.
They were critical of the failures of industrial society and hoped to bring about positive social change by depicting the plight of poor workers.
Europe's heartland was divided into strong national states after 1871.
In Ireland, Russia, Austria-Hungary and the Balkans, people still strive for national unity and independence.
Nationalism was a new unifying political principle.
The socialist parties grew quickly.
Governing elites manipulated national feeling to create a sense of unity to divert attention from underlying class conflicts, and to channel national sentiment in an antiliberal and militaristic direction.
The policy helped manage domestic conflicts, but it was only at the expense of increasing the international tensions that erupted in World War I.
There were a number of reasons why people in central and western Europe felt more loyalty to their governments by the 20th century.
Ordinary men felt they were becoming part of the system because more of them could vote.
Universal male suffrage became the rule by 1914.
Women began to demand the right to vote.
The first important successes were in Australia and Sweden.
After 1862, single women and widows could vote in municipal elections.
Australia and Finland gave women the right to vote in national elections, but restrictions on Aboriginal women's voting rights in Australia continued until the 1960s.
By 1913, women could vote in twelve states.
The first suffragist newspaper in the world was created by French socialist Hubertine Auclert, who organized women in a property-tax boycott.
The people were represented more responsively by politicians and parties in national parliaments as the right to vote spread.
Governments passed laws to alleviate general problems in order to appear more worthy of support.
Prussia and twenty-four smaller states were part of the new German Empire.
The separate states did most of the business of the government.
The Reichstag was a parliament that was elected and had a strong national government with a chancellor.
The support of the Reichstag was important to the legitimacy of his policy goals.
The man was against socialism.
He was able to outlaw the German Social Democratic Party, but he was not able to force socialism out of existence.
The Reichstag was urged to pass new social welfare measures.
National health insurance, accident insurance, and old-age pensions and retirement benefits were created by the Reichstag.
The first of its kind anywhere, the national social security system was funded by contributions from wage earners, employers, and the state.
The domestic and foreign policies of the state were managed by Bismarck.
In 1890 the new emperor, Wilhelm II, wanted to rule in his own way, so he forced Bismarck to resign.
New laws were passed by the Reichstag to help workers and to allow socialist political activity.
In the years before World War I, the Social Democratic Party adopted a more patriotic tone and was able to get workers to abandon socialism.
German socialists focused on gradual social and political reform.
The Franco-Prussian War undid Napoleon III's efforts to reduce antagonisms between classes, and in 1871 France was once again divided.
They were starving into submission by the German armies in January 1871.
France's leaders decided they had no choice but to give up Alsace and Lorraine to Germany after national elections sent a large majority of conservatives and monarchists to the National Assembly.
The Paris Commune was proclaimed in March 1871.
The leaders of the Communes wanted to govern Paris without interference from the French countryside.
The French army was ordered into Paris by the National Assembly.
There were twenty thousand deaths in the fighting.
In June 1848, it was Paris against the provinces.
France formed a new national unity after the tragedy.
The moderate republicans in France wanted to win the loyalty of the next generation in order to preserve their creation.
France acquired a colonial empire and trade unions were legalized.
Free compulsory elementary education for both girls and boys was established by a series of laws between 1879 and 1886, which greatly reduced the role of parochial Catholic schools, which had been hostile to republicanism.
In France and throughout the world, the expansion of public education served as a critical nation- and nationalism-building tool in the late nineteenth century.
Tensions between the church and state subsided in the 1890s as many French Catholics rallied to the republic after the educational reforms of the 1880s.
Alfred Dreyfus, a Jewish captain in the French army, was wrongly accused and convicted of treason in 1894.
France was split in two in 1898 and 1899.
On the other side was the army, which had manufactured evidence against Dreyfus, along with anti-Semites and most of the Catholic establishment.
The civil libertarians and most of the republicans were on the other side.
Alfred Dreyfus, a Jewish captain in the French army, was wrongly accused and convicted of treason.
After Dreyfus was declared innocent, the French government severed all ties with the church.
After being arrested and convicted in a secret court martial for treason, Captain Dreyfus stood to attention during a public degradation ceremony.
The militant republican feeling against the church was revived by this battle.
After centuries of close relations, the government severed ties with the Catholic Church in 1905.
In order to make more of its citizens feel part of the nation, Britain passed a series of voting rights bills.
Between 1906 and 1914, social welfare measures were passed in a rush.
The Liberal Party substantially raised taxes on the rich to pay for national health insurance, unemployment benefits, old-age pensions, and a host of other social measures.
The state was integrating the urban people.
Great Britain was on the verge of civil war on the eve of World War I.
The Irish revolutionary movement was fueled by the Irish famine of the 1840s and early 1850s.
In 1913 the British Parliament passed a bill giving Ireland self-government.
Home rule was desired by the Irish Catholic majority.
Irish Protestants in the north of the country were worried that they would fall under the control of the majority Catholics.
The whole question of Irish home rule was put off indefinitely by the British government as World War I began.
The Irish dilemma shows how desperate the situation in the Austro-Hungarian Empire was by the early twentieth century.
The Austrian emperor responded to the upheaval of 1848.
Hungary was ruled as a conquered territory by his bureaucracy.
This was part of a larger effort to Germanize the culture and language of different nationalities.
The dual monarchy was established after Austria was defeated by Prussia.
The empire was divided into two and the Magyars gained independence.
The monarch and ministries for finance, defense, and foreign affairs were shared between the two states.
The Austro-Hungarian Empire was destroyed by the conflicting national ambitions of its different ethnic groups as the disintegrating force of competing nationalisms continued.
The outbreak of war in 1914 was caused by ethnic conflicts in the Balkans.
Legal equality for all regardless of religion was achieved in Austria, Italy, and Prussia in the 1850s and 1860s.
The German Empire abolished restrictions on Jewish marriage, occupation, place of residence, and property ownership in 1871.
Most of the Jews in western and central Europe entered the middle class by 1871.
Jews identified with their nation-states and considered themselves patriotic citizens.
In central Europe, exclusion from government employment and discrimination in social relations continued.
The postcard states that Russian government officials encouraged popular anti-Semitism and helped drive Jews out of Russia in the late 19th century.
The road signs show the poor Jews crossing into Germany, where they will be welcomed with open arms and a meager meal at the Jolly Onion Inn.
Since they had expelled most of their Jews in the Middle Ages, France and Britain have had small but significant Jewish populations.
The stock market crash of 1873 caused vicious anti-Semitism to return.
Modern, supposedly scientific ideas about Jews as a separate race drew on traditions of religious intolerance.
Conservatives, extremists, and people who felt threatened by Jewish competition were most likely to have anti-Semitic beliefs.
Modern political parties were created by anti-Semites.
Karl Lueger, the popular mayor of Vienna from 1897 to 1910, used anti-Semitic rhetoric and supported municipal ownership of basic services.
Theodor Herzl was a Jewish journalist who advocated the creation of a Jewish state in response to the spread of antiSemitism.
Theodor Herzl started the movement towards Jewish political nationhood.
Eastern Europe had the most oppressive anti-Semitism before 1914.
In the Russian Empire, where there was no Jewish emancipation and 4 million of Europe's 7 million Jewish people lived, officials used anti-Semitism to channel popular discontent away from the government.
There was a wave of pogroms in southern Russia in the 19th century.
The police and army stood aside as peasants attacked Jews and destroyed their property.
Many Russian Jews fled official harassment to western Europe and the United States in the following decades.
The growth of socialist parties after 1871 was phenomenal, as socialism appealed to large numbers of working men and women in the late 19th century.
The German Social Democratic Party had millions of followers and was the largest party in the Reichstag.
Marxist socialist parties were linked together in an international organization.
As socialist parties grew and attracted more members, they looked toward gradual change and improvement for the working class, less and less toward revolution.
Workers were less likely to follow radical programs for a number of reasons.
As workers gained the right to vote, they focused more on elections than on revolutions.
Workers were not a unified group.
Quality of life improved in urban areas after 1850, as the workers' standard of living rose steadily.
The trend toward moderation was reinforced by the growth of labor unions.
New unions that formed for skilled workers after 1850 focused on winning better wages and hours for their members through collective bargaining and compromise.
Britain had unions for unskilled workers after 1890.
The Anti-Socialist Laws were repealed in 1890, but German unions were not granted important rights until 1869.
Union membership went up after legal harassment was eliminated.
The German trade unions were revisionists.
Bernstein suggested that socialists should reform their doctrine and win gradual evolutionary gains for workers through legislation, unions and further economic development.
The Marxist doctrine was updated to reflect realities of the time.
In other countries, socialist parties had clear-cut national characteristics.
Russians and socialists were the most radical.
The socialist but non-Marxist Labour Party in Great Britain committed to gradual reform.
Radical thought and action was dominated by anarchism in Spain and Italy.
There were different socialist policies and doctrines in different countries.
Almost all socialist leaders supported their governments when war broke out in 1914.
The allied powers wanted to restore peace and stability in Europe.
The conservative powers tried to stop the spread of ideas and changes in politics.
The new order was challenged by liberalism, nationalism, and socialism.
The liberal and nationalistic revolutions of 1848 were crushed by conservative forces after the growth of these forces.
Italy and Germany became unified nation-states in the second half of the 19th century, while Russia undertook a modernization program.
Major urban development, including new systems of sewerage, water supply, and public transportation, took place in the mid-nineteenth century when living conditions in rapidly growing industrial cities declined.
The class structure became more complex and diversified as the separate spheres ideology strengthened.
The traditional religious understanding of the world was challenged by scientific discoveries such as Darwin's theory of natural selection.
The spirit of change was reinforced by the Romantic movement.
Realism replaced Romanticism in the 1840s.
In the late 19th century, western society became more nationalistic as well as urban and industrial.
Nation-states became more responsive to the needs of their people, and they enlisted widespread support as political participation expanded, educational opportunities increased, and social security systems took shape.
socialism gained strength as a champion of working-class interests in domestic politics.
Even though nationalism served to unite peoples, it also drove them apart and contributed to the tragic conflicts of the twentieth century.
The unfinished legacies of the late-eightteenth-century revolutions in politics and economics can be seen as a struggle over the past two centuries.
Nationalism was the most dominant of the new ideologies.
The creation of unified nation-states in Germany and Italy was the result of national movements.
Competition between the major European powers for raw materials and markets for manufactured goods increased after 1870.
Europe colonized most of Africa and large areas of Asia in the last decades of the 19th century.
The very progress and unity it had helped to build was threatened by nationalism in Europe.
In 1914, the power of unified nation-states turned on itself, unleashing an unprecedented conflict among Europe's Great Powers.
African and Asian leaders who fought to liberate themselves from colonial rule faced challenges to European dominance, as well as a cry for freedom from European and American influence.
Chapter 33 talks about how policymakers in Africa, Asia, and Latin America are concerned about the huge gaps between rich and poor caused by economic transformation in America and Europe in the 19th century.
Socialist parties have been elected to office in many countries thanks to the popularity of socialism in Europe.
Russia, China, and Cuba were all taken over by Marxist revolutions in the twentieth century.
Explain the significance of each item.
Baycroft and Hewitson are authors.
A study of nationalism in all its forms and the processes that affected it.
A history of the transformation of poor women's daily lives in the 19th century, dealing with sexuality, death, work, and family.
A general study is recommended.
In the late nineteenth century, middle-class encounters with the London working class were provocative.
There was a time when humanities and science were not considered separate disciplines.
A cradle-to-grave biography of the famous revolutionary theorist.
From the Congress of Vienna to the Great War, there was a grand narrative of the forces that shaped modern Europe.