ChAPTER 3 -- Part 2: Asia's First Civilizations: India
Egyptian culture had a reputation for stability.
There were few changes to styles and beliefs during Egyptian civilization.
Egypt was fairly isolated and this helped preserve continuity.
Occasionally, change occurred.
A period of division, chaos, and rival royal dynasties were brought about by the attacks from the Middle East.
The unification of the monarchy happened during the Middle Kingdom period.
The Sudan became the African kingdom of Kush during this time, as Egyptian settlements spread southward into what is now the Sudan.
The largest single-stone statue in the ancient world was used for trade with the Middle East.
It is not known who built the eastern Mediterranean, but it is believed to have been constructed as ground.
The guardian of the Necropolis at giza, the home of the great pyramids, is one of the Egyptian influences spread by these contacts.
The symbol of the power of the pharaohs was displayed.
They were part of patriarchalism.
Around 2000 b.c.e.
"If you are a man of note, tural civilizations developed and became more prosperous and found for yourself a household and love your wife at home, as more elaborately organized, the status of women often deterio."
Clothe her back.
Although still vital, individual families became less important with agriculture.
The key decisions were made by the husband and father.
In the upper classes authority, this was given humility to this male.
There was a revealing symptom of patriarchy in en's labor.
Agricultural societies need more tamian civilization.
Marriages were arranged for women by their family labor, with children often born parents, and a formal contract was drawn up.
The pres may have given women more latitude than they thought.
Agricultural societies were based on concepts ality, and their earlier laws gave women important rights so that of property, beginning with the ways land was organized.
They were not treated as property early on.
Property relationships were defined by the law.
tery was treated lightly because he was a double standard character because he was a wife and a husband.
The strong times began to emphasize the importance of a woman's virgin legal emphasis on women's sexual fidelity and the tendency to ity at marriage and to require women to wear veils in public to treat women as part of a man's property.
They should emphasize their modesty within this framework.
It was possible to think of women as inferior and partly orna, so that when groups achieved a certain level of wealth, women were protected.
In Chinese civilization, the pattern was very clear, and it varied from one civili in India to another in western Europe.
Archalism was a response to economic and property conditions in the upper classes.
Over time, artistic works in agricultural civilizations could deepen.
Women cultural societies traced their descendants from mothers rather than themselves, and that raises important questions.
For example, this was true of Jewish law.
The culture of patriarchalism held that it was their job to these matrilineal societies to make women inferior to men and that they should obey and serve men.
Law and culture were used by many societies to try to get minority of women to express themselves through religious tasks.
Because of their importance in carrying to act independently of family structures, these boys were dictated.
Some rights for women in marriage were protected by patriarchal laws, which were defined on the family name and economic activities.
There were times when population excess threatened a family or theory.
Female infants were sometimes killed as a means women as wel as men the right to divorce under certain conditions of population control.
In patriarchal societies, women could wield informal power by their emotional hold over their husbands or sons.
Formal slavery was instituted by Egyptians in the New Kingdom.
The overall tone was striking, with Egypt more stable and cheerful than Mesopotamia, not only in its beliefs about gods and the afterlife, but in the colorful and lively pictures the Egyptians emphasized in their decorative art.
Egyptian civilization was less marked by disruption than its Mesopotamian counterpart.
Variations in geography, exposure to outside invasion and influence, and different beliefs made Egypt and Mesopotamia different.
They did not like each other much despite the trade and war.
Mesopotamian politics shifted more often over a substructure of regional city-states, whereas Egypt emphasized strong central authority.
The literary element that Egyptian art lacked was embraced by Mesopotamian art.
The great tombs and pyramids of ancient Egypt were motivated by the Egyptian concern for the afterlife, which Mesopotamians did not share.
The economies were different.
The environment of Mesopotamia was more difficult to manage than the Nile valley.
The Mesopotamians gave a lot of attention to the merchant class and commercial law.
Different ideas about women and women's costumes illustrated separate social systems.
River valley civilizations Egypt and Mesopotamia shared important features.
Both emphasized social stratification, with a noble, land-owning class on top and peasants and slaves at the bottom.
The elite also had a powerful priestly group.
Both civilizations emphasized astronomy and related mathematics and produced durable findings about units of time and measurement.
Mesopotamia and Egypt changed slowly.
Both societies had developed successful political and economic systems.
When change came, it was usually brought by outside forces.
Both civilizations left important heritages in their regions.
Several smaller civilization centers were launched under the influence of Mesopotamia and Egypt, and some would produce important innovations of their own by 1000 b.c.e.
The development of Egypt and Mesopotamia was influenced by their outreach.
The results of the parts of northeastern Africa helped spread civilization to a wider zone, creating additional centers in Africa and the Middle East.
It was ruled by Egypt for several years.
From time to time, Egyptian garrisons were stationed.
The emergence of Kush is shown in early artistic work.
As Egypt declined, Kush was able to conquer its northern neighbor and rule it for several centuries.
When the Assyrians invaded the Middle East, the Kushites began to push their frontiers farther south, gaining a more diverse African population and diminishing the Egyptian influence.
The use of river extended the area that could be cultivated.
The southern capital of the Kushite was derived from Egyptian hieroglyphics and has not yet been fully deciphered.
The sig Kingdom was established from 800 b.c.e.
Similar to Egypt's political organization, they emphasized a strong monarchy with elaborate ceremonies based on the belief that the king was a god.
The focus of religion was on the lion god.
In sub-Saharan Africa, the Kushite economic influence extended.
They traded a lot with people in the west, which may have spread knowledge of ironmaking to the rest of Africa.
The greatest period of the kingdom was from about 250 b.c.e.
African goods, such as ivory, gold, and slaves, were brought to the Middle East and the Mediterranean by this time.
Huge royal pyramids and an elaborate palace were built during those centuries, as well as fine pottery and jewelry.
Meroe fell from about 100 c.e.
The kingdom was located in the 300's.
Prosperity and extensive political and economic activity did not end in this region, but in the formation of a kingdom in present-day Ethiopia.
The Nile region learned a lot from Kush about political forms.
There wasn't much imitation of being converted to Christianity.
The formation of a separate society stretching below the eastern Sahara was an important step in setting the bases for technological and economic change in upper Africa.
Although its achievements are less well known in later African development, they may have helped set a larger pro cess of civilization in motion.
Smaller centers in the Middle East began to spring up after 1500 b.c.e.
Although dependent on the larger Mesopotamian culture for many ideas, these centers added important new elements and extended the hold of civilization to the Asian coast of the Mediterranean.
For several centuries, Egypt was ruled directly by the people from the rising kingdom of Kush, depicted in this Egyptian wall painting.
Several smaller cultures influenced other parts of the world.
The most important of the smaller Middle Eastern groups were the Hebrews, who gave the world one of its most influential religions.
The Arabs are included in the population group of the Semitic people.
They were influenced by Babylonians.
They may have moved from Mesopotamia to the southeast corner of the Mediterranean around 1600 b.c.
The first clear record of the Hebrews dates to 1100 b.c.e., but some may have moved into Egypt, where they were treated as subject people.
The Jewish tradition says that in the 13th century b.c.e., God promised a homeland for the people of Palestine.
This was the most important development in Jewish history.
When other parts of the Middle East were disorganized, the Jewish state was small and weak.
The Jews were divided into separate regional states as a result of a few Jewish kings unifying their people.
Palestine was under foreign domination from 722 b.c.e.
Jewish beliefs were elaborated by a series of dynamic prophets.
The emphasis encouraged a focus on the father God.
According to Mosaic tradition, the prophets encouraged Jews to abandon the worship of all other gods and to receive from God the Torah.
All Jews were made holy by keeping this law as it made them a special people.
From this point onward, Jews regarded themselves as a "chosen" people; a commu nity to bear witness to God's evolving will on earth.
The development of monotheism had a lot to do with it.
The concept of God became abstract and less human in the hands of Jewish people.
The planning quality of the traditional gods of the Middle East and Egypt was vastly different than that of God.
The gods in Mesopotamia were random and unpredictable, the Jewish god was orderly and just, and people could know what to expect if they followed God's rules.
There was a link to ethical conduct and moral behavior.
Religion for the Jews was more than just a set of rituals.
Between the 9th and 2nd centuries b.c.e., God's laws were clearly spelled out in the Torah and other writings.
The semitic tribe brings tribute to the pharaoh in this segment of the wall painting.
When Jewish ideas were taken up by Christianity and Islam, Eastern and Mediterranean civilization would come later.
One of the legacies of the twilight period between the first great civilizations and the new cultures was the basic concept.
The impact of Jewish religion beyond the Jewish people was complex.
All peoples would be led to God.
God's special pact was with the Jews, and little premium was placed on missionary activity or converting others to the faith.
This limitation helps explain the nature of the Jewish faith.
It kept the Jewish people a minority in the Middle East, although the religion was spread more widely by conversions to Judaism.
The civilization developed on the island of Crete.
Minoan society copied Egyptian.
The writing system came from Egypt.
The political structures of Egypt and the Mesopotamian empire were similar to those of today.
The establishment of the first civilization on the Greek mainland was the result of Minoan conquests.
The famous conflict with Troy was one of the many wars conducted by the early Greek civilization in the Middle East.
Civilizations in Crete and Greece were destroyed by a wave of invasions.
The civilization that arose later to form classical Greece was built on the memories of the first civilized society in Egypt and Mesopotamia.
Lebanon is home to another distinct society that grew up in the Middle East.
The Phoenicians gained a lot of knowledge from their extensive trading shores of the eastern Mediterranean.
Mediterranean was the descendant of the Phoenician alphabet.
The Egyptian numbering system was upgraded by the Phoenicians.
The Phoenicians were not vested in cultural achieve ments.
The production of dyes for cloth is one area where they advanced manufacturing techniques.
colonies were set up at several points along the Mediterranean.
There were few competitors for influence in the Mediterranean by 1000 b.c.e., so the Minoan society and its Greek successor benefited from the weakness of Egypt.
The Phoenicians established a major trading city on the coast of north Africa at Carthage, as well as lesser centers in Italy, Spain, and southern France.
Phoenicia collapsed in the wake of the Assyrians invading the Middle East in the 6th century b.c.e., but several of the colonial cities, such as Carthage, survived.
The civilization of the Middle East was disrupted by a series of invasions and migrations after 1200 b.c.e.
The hunt was built on the early civilizations.
Regional, political units and wealthy economies are what the civilizations were.
There was a break in devel for a while.
Mesopotamian and Egyptian beliefs were downplayed by the Europeans.
New religious ideas were brought in by them.
The river valley civilization phase in the Middle East was brought to a close by them.
Even with new patterns, the accomplishments of the river valley civilizations would continue to have an impact.
In the east and north Africa, the tools of civilization did not need to be reinvented.
Basic mathematics and science were used in later societies.
The cultural elements survived.
The Jewish religion continued to grow and had a larger influence.
The development of the seven- and eight-tone scales, as well as the invention of musical instruments like harps, drums, and flutes, would influence the music of Greece and other societies.
The impact of Egyptian architecture was wide.
The achievements of Egyptian societies were built on by later civilizations in the Mediterranean.
The range of influence is debated by historians.
The heritage of other mative civilization centers would be important in shaping major societies in Asia.
Mesopotamian leaders thought about expansion.
It was natural for traders to push civilization in the human experience, for example by dealing with merchants to the east or sending the rise of formal states.
The two expeditions went into the Mediterranean and beyond.
The Middle East's role as active agent in wider contact was clear, with contacts with regions beyond the core boundary of the civiliza being established.
Neither civilization had massive outreach to a wider Egypt, but it was self-contained.
Important trade and interaction along the Nile to the south was received more widely by each of them.
The annual Ethiopia can be traced back to Sumerian trade contacts with India or through the Persian Gulf.
Mediterra exchange of tons of Sumerian copper for Indian wheat was linked to trade and influence.
Fine gemstone necklaces were provided by a few interactions.
Most Egyptians, including the royal households.
Indian teak was imported by Egyptians.
The early Greeks learned about beverages from the desire to learn more.
The Egyptians may have returned the favor by sharing with Egypt, which may have led to less of a role for the region in the production of wine.
The forces that drove these contacts were both geographic and cultural.
There are two studies of history by both Euro and African scholars.
Most of our knowledge of the 3 comes from what types of evidence.
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