German princes had other motives for supporting Luther's Many poor, as well as Luther's banner of reli ideas.
The support for the reformer's call to stop sending German reform took money from princes who felt the sting of it in Germany.
Spurred on of something.
Luther's call for manorial dues appealed to a growing sense of religious abuses in the revolutionary program.
The Twelve A rticles, Christendom represented by the Catholic Church, were circulating in German nationalism.
The princes may have hoped that the pope's authority would be weakened and that the power of rights to use the woods would be diminished.
The Holy Roman Emperor Charles V was dealt with by these wants, but they were couched in part by papal support.
The princes were able to sequence Luther's call for people to bolster their own power because their demands were weakened.
Res for the disobedience or even the revolt of the entire idents of any principality who did not agree with their peasantry.
They had no choice but to start a peasant war.
As the Germans accepted the compromise, they took up arms and invaded manor houses.
Luther was not John Ball, the leader of the peasant revolt in England who had led the Christian Europe into a com leader.
He advocated religious reform, not social revo monarchs and princes, for he believed the Bible called for people to the advantage in separating from Rome.
Luther wrote a book against princes in supporting Lutheranism because of the violence in the kings.
Dissenting voices within the government.
The questions smoldered because Luther did not urge them to protect their privi.
The rebellion spread through Europe.
Luther's call for reform was welcomed in the courts of many German princes.
After Luther's challenge, reformers in Switzerland won the wars in Italy in the west and the Turkish threat in challenged old religious ideas.
The reformed church of a loose confederation of states took root in the east of Switzerland.
At this point, Charles was not ready for change, and the position to uproot Lutheranism, which was supported very independence of the cantons, allowed acceptance by many of the great princes of the land.
In addition, many of the young more, Charles's armies contained many Lutherans-- men from the Swiss cantons served as mercenaries in as early as 1527, men among the rioting troops in the seemingly insatiable armies of Europe, and service Rome purportedly were calling for a silk
The emperor couldn't govern anymore because of the growing national discontent and lack of accommodation.
Charles wanted his subjects to come together under a single religion.
In 1530, he ordered Zwingli, who lived in the all Lutherans, to return to Catholicism or be arrested.
When he served as Charles tried to compromise.
In the 1540s, he wanted to remove the possibility of reconciliation between Lutherans and Catholics and enlisted the help of Swiss mercenaries, but these failed as well.
After Luther challenged the population of the empire in 1519, Lutheranism captured half of the empire.
The Lutheran church in Switzerland was established because of the Peace of practice only found in scripture.
Most of the sacraments were defi ned by each prince.
Meeting in Marburg to try to bring about an alliance was horrible for some.
The meeting fell apart due to the differing views of the two reformers on the nature of Christ's oppression of the poor.
Zwingli 1534, a fi ery preacher named Mel insisted the remembrance was symbolic, whereas chior established a sect (called the Melchiorites) that Luther insisted that Christ's body was present as gained political control of their city of Munster.
As neither man could compromise burned all books but the Bible, abolished private prop with his conscience and his understanding of scrip erty, and introduced polygamy as they settled down to ture, there would be no united Protestant church or wait for the expected second coming of Christ.
The reformed churches were seen by Catholics as a threat to their ociety, separate ways.
The radicals were attacked by Swiss cantons.
Civil wars broke Catholics and other Protestants.
The perous middle class had voiced religious longings reform stirred in more consciences and continued to aspire under the guidance of Zwingli.
Hope and violence are brought in the spread.
Calvin studied many human governments while preparing people for a career in law.
Calvin read some of religion as incompatible because many people saw power and ist writings.
Luther's works are art by M. The royal authorities who in the reign sects were referred to by their opponents as Anabap of Francis I began a periodic suppression of reform tists.
The nature of Calvin's vision appealed to peasants and artisans who were suffering from poverty and the relentless warfare of the period.
Calvin accepted the basic elements of Confrontation between Anabaptists and the rest of Protestant belief, but he society was based on the Anabaptists' own emphasis.
Many radical reformers urged people to separate the power of God from the majesty of God.
They argued that serving in the armies that were vigorously of humans' place in the universe should not be part of the government's ulation of individual salvation.
The power of God was again emphasized by devel C alvin when he looked at the question of salvation.
Men's Rights have not been exempt from the imper fection of all women.
A very useful letter written and lovers of truth desire to know and under written in French for the use and benefi t composed by a Christian woman from Tournai was sent by my very honored lady.
The female sex is more shameful against the Turks, Jews, Infi dels, and False Christians than against the Queen of Navarre, sister of the King of France.
Marie said the purpose was demonstrated.
I have not only wished, my lady, but that she moved several reasons.
She will no longer be in favor of women's studying and ity if she marshals courage to other women held in captiv in the future.
Calvin rejected the idea that women should be damnation and be leaders, but Marie expressed the ideas of many to share salvation.
Calvin said that the souls that were women before and after her should be educated and preach the word of God.
As Calvinism took hold, many believers felt that humans couldn't do anything to earn center for Calvinist missionary work.
Calvin dispersed 100 preachers to the far-FL ung destination after their salvation.
Predestination was at the core of Europe.
Calvin's beliefs were impressive and he laid out directions for organiz followers in subsequent generations.
Marie worked for an ex-nun who was a spiritual seeker.
Dentiere and her new husband were receptive to Calvinist thought.
Calvinist minorities have a problem with the final PDF because the Peace of Augsburg only recognized Lutheranism and Catholicism as acceptable religions.
Calvinism became the dominant form of Protestantism in Scotland after John Knox returned from Switzerland.
Others from the British Isles were drawn to the reformers.
Protestant reliance on individual conscience made believers uncomfortable with much of the religious art that had dominated Christian worship in the West.
The images that graced the churches were considered idolatry by Calvinists.
In the Netherlands, people destroyed these images in a riot because of the concerns caused by the illustrations.
Most of the Reformation leaders disapproved of such violence, but religious art was not initially a reformer.
He wrote an destroyed in Protestant countries.
While soldiers are unable to stop the pope, some felt a strong antipathy towards him, and it did not seem as if their king would lead them to violence.
Calvin's move of a male heir changed everything.
He articulated a lot of the succession.
Catherine theological principles that would defi ne all Protestant of Aragon had failed to produce one.
Henry started churches.
Henry had fallen in love with Anne Boleyn.
It would be even more exciting to end his marriage.
Protestant sympathies grew to the wishes of the royal family.
The king himself was an unlikely ally in the Italian Habsburg-Valois Wars, and they would get some fruit from that.
PDF to printer holding Pope Clement VII prisoner.
Henry's third wife, Jane Seymour, bore him a son, Edward, in 1537.
Catherine, Henry's queen, was Charles V's aunt.
The pope dragged his feet in granting Henry's annulment when he took the throne.
Anne Boleyn convinced the king to marry her and have a child.
Henry was running who was fond of Protestant theology, but he was out of time for his annulment because he wanted Anne's young.
England was a legitimate child because of Edward's age.
Thomas Cranmer, arch Protestantism in England, was one of Henry's two principal ruled by a council of regents.
Parliament made a dying father on the left.
The composition shows that the pope's authority was cut off by the rule of a minor during these cal offi cials in England.
The dying king extended his right after Thomas Cranmer ruled that Henry's marriage to Catherine was null and void.
She gave birth to a girl, the future England, three months later, and the full Privy Council was able to manage to upset the king.
Next to Queen Elizabeth.
Both dukes tried to take over power during Edward VI's brief six-year reign.
The pope and monks were in the middle of religious reform when he unleashed the young king in the painting.
Outside of the win designed to control the Catholic clergy, iconoclastic Protestants destroy churches and pass the Act of Supremacy that declared images, Parliament passed a number of measures that were crushed by the scriptures.
The king the supreme head of the Catholicism came under attack in England.
The Act of Uniformity was issued in 1549, but not everyone in England welcomed it.
It seemed as if the senter was the secular Thomas More (1478-1535), whose conscience would not allow English to suffer more upheavals before religious him to obey a secular ruler in matters of faith, and he peace reigned.
Mary dissent, his elder sister, was beheaded and this man of high integrity died blessing, the daughter of Catherine of Aragon, the king who had been his great friend.
The Protes protective bosom of Rome was not supported by him.
Although tant religious ideas, he reaffi rmed tran many prominent Protestants, which all the Protestants rejected.
After Mary's accession, the queen tried to force fact on him, but he still considered himself a Catholic.
The powerful king ordered some 280 Protestants to be burned for "reli implemented Reformation ideas that enriched his cof gious treason," including the leader of the Catholic Church.
The English public was more upset by her marriage to Charles V's son Philip II than the reformers were by their rejection of the monastic life.
The marriage did not produce an heir who had enough money to continue her Catholic policies.
The throne went to her half policies after Upon Mary's death.
Anne Boleyn's daughter, Elizabeth I, became a Protestant under the rule of Henry's son.
The work commemorates the re-establishment of the Church of England by the young king Edward VI.
She was also seen in Chapter 12.
Scotland was to show its gratitude.
The about the points of theology was written by Knox.
The Scots emphasized individual responsibility for maintaining peace in her realm while Christian conscience over ecclesiastical authority and allowing people to follow their consciences.
She per lished a Presbyterian form of organization that gave Secuted Catholics, who she felt had divided loyalties, and instead of placing bishops in authority, she was adamant on loyalty above all else.
She wanted to unify England around a Protestant core, but also allow her loyal subjects latitude in religious independent than the Episcopal congregation of the practice and belief.
PDF to printer for insights about criticism of Christian humanism.
The Renaissance papacy had been urged to reform by Girolamo Savonarola.
His voice was heard by popes in the early 16th century who called for reform.
The Counter-Reformation by Protestants saw these reforms as a response to the Protestant challenge.
The Great Schism, the Conciliar movement, and the rule of the politically active Renaissance popes are some of the factors that led to the growth of these religious refl ections.
The Habsburg-Valois Wars occupied the attention of the Catholic kings Charles V and Francis I, who in normal times would have supported the papacy.
During the sack of Rome in 1527, imperial troops made off with mounds of gold coins from the papal treasury.
The popes stepped up fund-raising to recover their losses.
Practical reform had to wait.
In 1469, Elizabeth brought a moderate approach to religious reform that allowed England to flourish.
She married the kingdoms that advertised her accomplishments and soothed her Vanity.
They decided to establish a centralized power and reduce the nobility's power.
The two monarchs of a uniform Christianity had evaporated as part of their consolidation of royal authority.
Minor citizens were formed by Calvinists.
Many rulers struggled to wrestle Ferdinand and he became known as the "Cath with even this degree of diversity."
Protestantism, olic monarchs, emphasizing their faith and degree by its very nature, had the potential to yield even to which they believed they carried the banner of more divisions.
Once the door was opened for Catholicism to flourish.
There was no limit to the paths that people could create as part of their goal of defi ne their own way to God.
Ferdinand and conscience were part of the drive to unify Spain.
The pope gave the go-ahead for the establishment of an Inquisition to ensure religious homogeneity in their newly conquered territories.
The court was different from the medieval Inquisition because it was under the control of the monarchy.
Calvinist 2 was strong.
Even though minorities in some countries, Catholics might have felt threatened.
Muslims and Jews were healing crookedly, so the final PDF was used to examine them.
They were secretly practicing their old religions.
The saints decided to dedicate himself as a soldier of t rials under the control of the secular authorities.
The Catholic version of the personal search for God will be shown in Chapter 12.
Across the Atlantic, the same crusading zeal would continue.
Spain was well placed to lead the way in how spiritual discipline could satisfy people's desire for Catholicism against the forces of Protestantism.
There was a perfect combination of Catholic orthodoxy and the longings of leading families of Europe.
Charles V was so vigorous in his reformed Catholicism that it was not surprising that he was fect obedient to the papacy.
The men were devoted to Catholicism.
The threat of Protestantism was one of the reasons why Cardinal Ximenez de Cisneros was the most religious person in Spain.
Their schools changed their name.
He was a confessor to the queen, one of the best in Europe, and also drew some regents of Spain who were willing to risk their children's lives after Ferdinand's death.
In exchange for the humanist ideas into Spain, it was Ximenez who brought conversion to Catholicism.
D ocument 11.3 contains a letter from Ximenez that explains his appreciation of Eras Loyola's emphasis on scholarly study of scripture and of education.
In 1498, cism to the New World.
A high point of reformed Catholicism was represented by this scholarship.
The catholic church had long enough for the dying man to take the last rites reformed by mendicant orders and cast out demons.
The image praises traditional Catholic doctrine.
Several showing the effi cacy of saints by representing them as new orders emerged, but the most important was the relationship between people and God.
The Loyola, a soldier in the service of the last rites, was attacked by the Spanish monarch.
A cannonball shattered in battle as a result of being depicted as a miracle.
The progress is heretics it by heart.
It would seem that our society poison their evil teaching throughout the Church in this trial and should make use of the following means so many countries and people.
The heretics presented a false summary of theology to deal with popular topics.
Loyola argues that the that are important but not controver a way that is within the capacity of the main reasons for the spread of sial.
Baroque art was characterized by abuses, and it confronted this by passion, drama, and awe and issue honestly, establishing stern measures to clean was designed to involve the audi up clerical corruption, ignorance, and apathy.
The art that spoke as elo of indulgence-seller was spurred by the fact that Catholic patrons banned the selling of indulgences.
The real work of the council was done when it confronted the theological debate sermon.
The new art style had driven the Protestants from the church.
As the Jesuits were effective, the church had to agree on its doctrine in response to the fact that there would be no compromise with Protestant critique.
The dead count doesn't face his maker alone.
El Greco shows saints helping with the burial.
The count's way to heaven is paved by the prayers of the living who surround the scene and the Virgin Mary who sits between the dead man and Jesus.
The painting depicts heaven as a place where saints and souls of other saved individuals pray for the count and help him enter their community.
The theology was established at the Council of Trent.
The Trent council argued that the faithful had accumulated a number of practices over the course of a millennium.
The papacy began to publish an index of banned books in 1557.
Baroque artists portrayed the passions that accompanied the deep spirituality of the reformed Catholic faith in 1620.
The founder of the Society of Jesus, Loyola, performs miracles as he stands as a printing press.
A new strength and confi dence was shown by the church.
Dissenters went to other sects in order to free their souls from the Protes punishment.
The council has maintained the existence of all seven rites throughout this period.
The wine mystic who quickly became a saint and host into the blood and body of Christ was presided over by a priests.
The daughter of a Like Rubens, the Spanish painter El Greco (the converted Jew, Teresa entered a convent and experi Greek) was a baroque painter.
Teresa was a Catholic and a mystic.
As part of her dedication to a reinvigorated Catholicism, she sent the final PDF to printer women.
She became the patron saint of Spain after Saint James, who had held that honor throughout the Middle Ages, died.
The example of Teresa and other mystics offered the church a strong weapon to show skeptics the deep and passionate faith that came with Catholic worship.
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