The settlers in the western territories hoped that giving women the right to vote would encourage more women to live there.
The West was the most supportive of women's rights.
The suffragists won three more victories in western states between 1890 and 1896.
Washington, California, Arizona, Kansas, and Oregon embraced women voters in 1912.
New York acted in 1917 to allow women to vote in all elections.
The right to vote and hold office was argued to be a matter of simple justice by advocates for women's speach.
Others said that women were superior to men because of their moral superiority.
The women's suffragist movement was not free from prejudice.
The Fifteenth Amendment guaranteed voting rights for African American men, which suffragists hoped would aid their own efforts to gain the vote.
Some people believed that they should be allowed to vote.
The majority of men insisted that women stay out of politics because it would corrupt their moral purity.
At the end of the 19th century, suffragists criticized Congress for allowing immigrants to vote but not well educated women.
She said that the nation had given the foreigner, the Negro and the Indian the vote but still kept the vote from white women.
African American women were not allowed to join the suffragists.
Theodore Roosevelt called the public's "fierce discontent with evil" at the start of the twentieth century, which led to the growth of the progressive movement.
There were many social and political il s, from corrupt politi cians to too- powerful corporations, from economic distress on small farms and in big cities to the general feeling that "the people" had lost control of the nation to the special interests-- businesses.
The rise of direct democracy and the expansion of federal government power were two of the most important political developments of the twentieth century.
The way to improve America's democracy was to make it more democratic.
To clean up the political system, progressives wanted the political process to be more open and transparent.
South Carolina was the first state to have a statewide primary.
Almost every state did it within twenty years.
Progressives developed other ways to increase public participation in the political process so as to curb the influence of corporate bosses on state legislatures.
Citizens could sign petitions to have a proposal put on the ballot and then vote on it.
By 1920, nearly twenty states had adopted the initiative and referendum.
Progressives fought to change the way senators are elected.
State legislatures elected senators, a process that is often disrupted by lobbyists and vote buying.
In 1900, Senate investigators discovered that a Montana senator had given more than $100,000 in secret bribes to members of the legislature that chose him.
Taylor was the nation's first efficiency expert.
Taylor's innovations were resented by many workers because they were seen as a tool to make people work faster.
An Iowa man said they object to being reduced to a scientific formula.
One of the most important contributions to capitalist economies in the twentieth century was Taylor's "scientific" approach to industrial management.
Taylorism was applied to the operations of government by political progressives who called for the reorganization of state and federal agencies to eliminate dupli cation, to establish clear lines of authority, and to replace political appointees with trained specialists.
By the early twentieth century, many complex func tions of government required specialists with technical expertise.
The first decade of the new century saw the emergence of two Taylorist ideas to reform city and county governments.
The com mission system was first adopted by the city of Galveston, Texas, in 1901, after the largest natural disaster in American history-- a devastating Hurricane and tidal wave-- killed more than 8,000 people.
The commission system gave ultimate authority to a board composed of Commissioners who combined both legislative and executive powers in heading up the city departments.
The commission system of government was adopted by many cities.
Under the city-manager plan, an administrator ran a city or county government in accordance with policies set by the elected council and mayor.
The first city-manager plan was adopted in Virginia.
The pro fessional efforts to make local governments more businesslike had a downside.
Local government was separated from party politics when control was shifted from elected officials representing individual neighborhoods to large commissioners and nonpartisan special ists.
Commissioners and managers focused on reducing expenses rather than expanding services when running a city like a business.
The ideal of efficient government was pursued by progressive Republican governor Robert M. La Follette of Wisconsin.
The Legislative Reference Bureau provided nonpartisan research, advice, and help to elected officials.
The bureau's reports were used by La Follette to make changes to the railroad regulation, the workmen's compensation program, and the natural resources program.
The "Wisconsin idea" was copied by other progressive governors.
One of the biggest problems facing American society is how to regulate giant corporations.
During the depression of the 1890s, the threat of corporate monopolies increased as struggling companies were taken over by larger ones.
There were 157 new holding companies that gained control of 1,800 businesses between 1895 and 1904.
Almost 50 giant holding companies controlled more than 70% of the market in their respective industries.
By 1903, the number had increased to 300.
The Sherman Anti- Trust Act was passed by Congress in 1890 after concerns over the concentration of economic power in trusts and other forms of monopolies.
Government agencies that regulate businesses were often headed and staffed by men who had worked in the industries they were appointed to regulate.
Railroad executives were named to the Interstate Commerce Com mission, which was created to regulate railroads.
The issue of reg ulating the regulators has never been solved.
The progressive movement wants to improve social justice for the working poor, the homeless, and the unemployed.
In addition to their work in settlement houses and other areas, many progressives formed advocacy organizations such as the National Consumers League, led by Florence Kelley, which promoted safer and less exploitative working conditions for women by educating consumers about harsh working conditions in factories and mil s and the widespread use of
The General Federation of Women's Clubs insisted that civic life needed female leadership.
Women's clubs across the country sought to clean up slums by educating residents about personal and household hygiene, urging construction of sewer systems, and launching public awareness campaigns about the connection between unsanitary tenements and disease.
Child- care centers, kindergartens, stricter housing codes, laws for women in the workplace, and more social services for the poor, sick, disabled, and abused are some of the things that women's clubs are campaigning for.
Others talked about prostitution and alcohol abuse.
Middle- class women were the driving force behind efforts to stop the sale of alcoholic beverages.
The WCTU is the largest women's group in the nation with 300,000 members.
Most members saw excessive drinking in saloons as a threat to social progress and family stability, despite the fact that some members were motivated by Protestant beliefs that consuming alcohol was a sin.
One of the worst tools of corruption was free beer on Election Day, which was used to buy votes among the work ing class.
WCTU members met in churches to pray and then went to saloons to convince their owners to close.
The founder of the WCTU bet that he would lobby for women's speach.
The WCTU was pushed to lobby for an eight hour workday, the regulation of child labor, the right to vote, and federal inspections of the food industry.
The Anti- Saloon League, an organization based in churches that pioneered the strategy of the single- issue political pressure group, was formed in 1893.
The WCTU focused on closing saloons rather than abolishing alcohol.
It decided to force the prohibition issue into the forefront of state and local elections.
Congress approved an amendment to the Constitution prohibiting the manufacture, sale, and consumption of alcoholic beverages in 1917.
Almost half of wage workers toiled up to twelve hours a day in unsafe, unsanitary, and unregulated conditions in 1890.
Legislation to ensure better working conditions and limit child labor was perhaps the most cant reform to emerge from the drive for progressive social justice.
Less than half of working fami lies lived solely on the husband's earnings at the end of the 19th century.
Children of poor families dropped out of school and went to work in factories, shops, mines, mil s, and canneries.
Some 1.75 million children between the ages of ten and fifteen were working outside in 1900.
Progressives argued that children had rights as well.
In the south, a third of the workers were children.
Children worked six hours a week in several southern states.
"I regard my employees as well as my machinery," the manager said.
There are laws prohibiting the employment of children.
Most states passed such laws within ten years.
Reformers wanted to regulate the length of the workday for women because some working mothers were pregnant and others had inadequate supervision at home.
Many state governments banned the hiring of children below a certain age and limited the hours that women and children could work in the 1890-1920 progressive Era.
It took a tragedy to spur meaningful government regulation.
The Triangle Shirtwaist factory in New York City was 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217
The owners of the building kept the stairway door locked to prevent theft and 146 workers died or jumped to their deaths from the upper floors.
In the aftermath of the fire, there were descriptions of the poor working conditions and exploitation that went into their manufacture.
The owners of the Triangle Shirtwaist company finally paid the families of their employees who died.
The Supreme Court had differing opinions on state labor laws.
The Court approved an Oregon law that restricts the workday to no more than ten hours for women based on evidence that long working hours increased the chances of health problems.
The first income tax was repealed in 1872 because of the cost of fighting the Civil War.
The government relied on tariffs and taxes on liquor and tobacco to fund it.
The Progressives believed that the federal income tax would close the gap between rich and poor if it was called a "progressive" federal income tax.
The movement's climax was a graduated tax system.
The progressive income tax was not new.
The 2 percent tax on corporations and individuals earning more than $4,000 a year was approved by Congress in 1894.
Progressives believed that a graduated income tax would slow the concentration of wealth in the hands of the richest Americans.
President Theodore Roosevelt supported the cause in 1907.
Congress agreed to allow such a tax after William Howard Taft endorsed a constitutional amendment.
State and local levels are where most progressive legislation began.
When Theodore Roosevelt became president in 1901, federal reform efforts began in earnest.
William McKinley was unwilling to confront business leaders, but Theodore Roosevelt thrived on confrontation.
TR was a force of nature, an American original with a big ego and a triumphant grin.
His energy, charm, and humor made up for his contradictions.
At the beginning of the new century, he would educate Americans about the new realities.
TR ran so fast each day that he was overwhelmed by his schedule.
He had pillow fights with his children in the White House.
Roosevelt was certain that he knew how to lead the nation.
He decided that Congress had grown too corrupt and dominant.
In the past, presidents had deferred to Congress.
He was not willing to wait for Con gress to act on the problems caused by industrial growth.
He believes in a strong president.
The president became the primary source of policymaking during his administration.
Roosevelt believed that great presidents should take "noble risks" even if it meant stretching the limits of the Constitution.
His view of presidential powers was quickly noticed by people.
Roosevelt was the first president to use his power to rein in Big Business.
Legislation to regulate sweatshops, institute state inspections of factories and limit the workday to eight hours was one of the things he pushed for as governor of New York.
He was willing to use radical methods to ensure that the social unrest caused by the insensitivity of business owners to the rights of workers and the needs of the poor did not mushroom into a revolution, even though he believed in cap italism.
TR applauded the growth of industrial capitalism but declared war on the "wealthy criminal class" and its corruption and cronyism, or the awarding of political appointments, government contracts, and other favors to politicians' personal friends.
In December 1901, just a few months after entering the White House, President Roosevelt declared that it was time to deal with the "grave evils" resulting from huge corporations exercising dominance over their industries and the nation's economic life.
He believed that the federal government had an obligation to curb the excesses of Big Business.
Roosevelt believed that governments should be fair.
The president shocked the business community when he ordered his attorney general to break up the Northern Securities Company.
Railroads and steamships were part of the holding company organized by Wall Street titan J. Pierpont Morgan.
Morgan couldn't believe the news.
Roosevelt was asked if he planned to attack his other trusts.
Roosevelt replied, "unless we find out that."
The president told the attorney general to file the paperwork after Morgan left.
In 1904, the Supreme Court ruled that the Northern Securities Company was a monopoly and should be dismantled, opening the way for more aggressive enforcement of the Sherman Anti- Trust Act.
Roosevelt believed that the rise of Big Business was the result of the indus trial era.
He insisted that the titans of industry and finance be regulated for the public good, even though he didn't want to destroy them.
Anti- trust suits were approved by Roosevelt.
He wanted stronger regulation of railroads.
They were able to likens Roosevelt to the Greek legend ers because of the 1906 cartoon.
The Elkins Act made it illegal for Hercules, who was a baby at the time, to give railroads secret kickbacks.
Standard volume business customers are pro- corporation senator Nelson Aldrich.
A Bureau of Corporations would be formed within a federal Department of Commerce and Labor.
More than 100,000 mine workers in Pennsylvania and West Virginia walked off the job on May 12, 1902.
The miners wanted a wage increase and a shorter workday.
The mine owners chose to shut down the coal mines after the union sought official recognition.
Immigrants from southern and eastern Europe were in a bind.
The long shutdown caused the price of coal to go up and hospitals and schools had empty coal bins.
Poor households in northern cities ran out of coal.
Walter Rauschenbusch warned that the country was on the verge of disaster.
The Reverend Washington Gladden led a petition drive.
The mine owners refused to speak to the leaders.
Roosevelt was so angry with the owners that he wanted to grab their spokesman by the seat of his breeches and throw him out of the window.
He threatened to declare a national emergency so that he could take control of the mines and use soldiers to run them.
The strike ended on October 23 after the president's threat.
The miners got a 10 percent wage increase.
Roosevelt was the first president to use his authority to referee a dispute between management and labor.
Federal troops were sent to shoot union activists.
Theodore Roosevelt had friends and enemies.
He acknowledged that the "whole Wall Street crowd" would try to defeat him as he prepared to run for reelection in 1904.
He won the Republican nomination.
Theodore Roosevelt was depicted as a Roman tyrant.
There were conflicting reactions to Roosevelt's energy, self-righteousness, and impulsiveness.
The Progressives gave the election to Roosevelt and the Republicans because they lost twice with William Bryan.
The presidential candidate in history that was the most boring was Parker.
The most interesting thing in his biography was that he had trained his pigs to come when called.
The Democrats had their worst election defeat in thirty years.
Having succeeded to the presidency after William McKinley's assassination, he had now won election on his own and had a mandate to do great things.
He said on the eve of his inauguration that he would come into office in his own right.
Theodore Roosevelt launched his second term with a stronger commitment to regulating corporations and their corrupt owners who exploited workers and tried to eliminate the com petition.
Many of his corporate contributors were upset by his comments.
Roosevelt wanted to promote the "moral regeneration of business".
The Hepburn Act gave the interstate commerce commission the power to set maximum freight rates.
The federal government assumed oversight of key industries that affect public health under Roosevelt's Square Deal programs.
The activities of food and drug products were revealed by muckraking journalists.
The storage places were too dark to see, but a man could sweep the dried rats off the piles of meat.
The rats were nuisances, and the packers would put poisoned bread out for them, they would die, and then rats, bread, and meat would go into the hoppers together.
Government inspectors are at a meatpacking plant.
The Pure Food and Drug Act required the makers of prepared food and medicines to host government inspectors and label the ingredients in their products.
Theodore Roosevelt cared about the environment.
He championed efforts to protect wilderness areas and manage the nation's natural resources.
He approved five new national parks, created fifty federal wildlife sanctuaries, and designated eighteen national monuments.
Roosevelt supported the appointment of Gifford Pinchot, the nation's first professional forest manager, as head of the Department of Agriculture's Division of Forestry.
Pinchot believed in economic growth as well as environmental preservation.
The Forest Reserve Act was used by Roosevelt and Pinchot to protect 172 million acres of federal forests.
Roosevelt created forty five national forests in eleven western states and set aside more than 234 million acres of federal land.
Roosevelt's domestic policy failures were his refusal to endorse women's speach and to confront racism.
African Americans, Native Americans, and some immigrant groups were not included in the definition of "the people".
Jim Crow laws that prevented blacks from voting in the South were ignored or endorsed by most white progressives.
Blacks were not allowed to work in law enforcement or serve on juries in the South.
W. E. B wrote about the South.
Many informal patterns of segregation and prejudice in the North and West were questioned by few progressives.
Washington was seated to Roosevelt's left in 1900 when Roosevelt addressed the National Negro Business League.
He had made a few exceptions.
Roosevelt invited Booker T. Washington to the White House for dinner in 1901.
White southerners were angry.
Roosevelt accepted the criticism.
He wouldn't host a black leader again.
During his tour of the South in 1905, he showed his admiration for the Confederacy and Robert E. Lee by highlighting his own southern ancestry.
Several whites were shot by members of the African Ameri can army in Texas in 1906 because they had been harassing them outside a saloon.
A bartender was killed and a police officer was wounded.
The investigation concluded that the soldiers were at fault, but no one could identify the people who shot them.
Several of the soldiers who had been awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor for their service in Cuba during the War of 1898 were discharged by Roosevelt.
The White House was flooded with angry telegrams.
Theodore Roosevelt said after his 1904 election victory that he wouldn't run for president again because he didn't want to be the first person to serve three terms.
He said that no president has ever enjoyed himself as much as he has.
He said that the strength of the United States depended on having a strong central executive.
He was going to leave the White House and go hunting in Africa.
Unlike most retiring presidents, Roosevelt was loved by his party and they gave him a roaring ovation at the 1908 Republican nominating convention.
He urged the delegates to vote for his friend, Secretary of War William Howard Taft, on the first ballot.
William Bryan was chosen by the Democrats again.
The Republican platform endorsed the president's progressive program.
The Republican emphasis on regulation of business was echoed by the Dem ocratic platform.
Bryan was defeated for a third time as Taft swept the electoral college.
William Howard Taft was a good choice to be president.
After graduating second in his class at Yale University, the son of a prominent attorney who had served in President Grant's cabinet became a leading legal scholar and served on the Ohio Supreme Court.
In 1900, President McKinley appointed him the first American governor-general of the Philippines, and three years later Theodore Roosevelt named him secretary of war.
After the San Francisco earthquake of 1906, the relief effort was organized by Taft.
Before becoming president, he had never held elected office and was unsure if he wanted to be a chief executive.
He wanted to be a justice on the Supreme Court.
He once confessed that running for president was a nightmare.
The robust, athletic Roos evelt struggled most of his life with Obesity, topping out at 332 pounds.
He had to use a special bathtub in the White House.
"How is the Manassas, Virginia, in 1911?"
was the root cabled back.
He confessed that his primary sin was being lazy.
He fell asleep at a lot of events.
Despite being good- natured and easy going, Taft was never able to escape the shadow of his predecessor.
I hear someone say 'Mr.
"Strict con struction" of the Constitution meant that the founders limited the powers of each of the three government branches, and that's what Taft believed.
The president's authority should be limited to what the Constitution says, and he should not have a role in the development of legislation, as was argued by the man who insisted that the president could take any action not explicitly prohibited by the Constitution.
Roosevelt had initiated a number of programs and policies.
He was more determined than Roosevelt to support the spirit of commercial freedom against monopolistic trusts, but he was not interested in pushing for additional reforms or exercising extraordinary presidential power.
He viewed himself as a judge, not an innovator.
The break between the two men would be caused by Roosevelt's role as a reformer president.
He was less skillful in dealing with Congress than Roosevelt was.
The Payne- Aldrich Tariff did little to change federal policies because of the failure of leadership.
He was attracted to the "Old Guard" Republican conservatives.
Roosevelt and other Republican progressives were not happy.
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