Western political ideas, including democracy and revolu tion, were learned by more and more Chinese.
Sun Yatsen was the most famous.
After being sent to Hawai'i by his family, he continued his education in Hong Kong.
China's monarchy was brought to overseas Chinese by an uprising.
There was a plot that ended China's imperial rule.
Army officers staged a coup because they were afraid that their connections to the revolutionaries would be exposed.
China would never be the same despite escaping direct foreign rule.
While China's standing in the world plummeted, Japan's was rising.
The Japanese government expelled European traders and missionaries in the early 17th century.
The Dutch were the only ones who were allowed to travel outside of Japan.
Japan modernized because of the European threat.
Wanting to play a greater role in the Pacific, the United States decided to force the Japa nese to share their ports.
Commodore Matthew Perry demanded diplomatic negotiations with the emperor in the 19th century.
Senior officials knew what had happened in China and how defenseless their cities would be against naval bombardment, despite some Japanese samurai urging resistance.
The officials signed a treaty with the United States that opened two ports and allowed trade.
The emperor was a figurehead.
The Tokugawa shogun had real power after Commodore Perry's two hundred years.
Under a daimyo, the country was divided into numerous domains.
The daimyo were samurai who had hereditary stipends and privileges.
After two centuries of peace, there were many more samurai than were needed to defend the country, and many lived modestly.
They were proud and humiliated by the treaties that the Western countries imposed.
When foreign diplomats and merchants arrived in Yokohama after 1858, the radical samurai reacted with a wave of terrorism and assassinations.
The Western response was clear.
The power and prestige of the shogun's government was weakened when the Western powers sent a fleet of warships to destroy key Japanese forts.
The Tokugawa Sho gunate was overthrown in 1867 by a coalition of reform-minded daimyo.
The samurai who led this coup did not practice direct rule in Japan for more than six hundred years.
The Meiji Oligarchs used the ousting of the Tokugawa Shogunate emperor to win over both the lords and the commoners.
The power of the Japanese emperors was restored during the emperor's first decade.
The readers of the emerging press were kept informed of the young emperor's actions.
The power was in the hands of the billionaires.
The leaders of Meiji Japan dropped their antiforeign attacks.
They were convinced that they could not beat the West until they had mastered the secrets of their military and industrial might.
In 1868, an imperial decration promised that "Deliberative assembly shal be widely established and al matters decided by public discussion" and that "knowledge shal be sought throughout the world so as to strengthen the foundations of imperial rule".
The members looked at everything from the U.S. Constitution to the factories, shipyards, and railroads that made the European landscape so different from Japan's.
Most of the power over popu lation was in the hands of the daimyos.
The government was able to be centralized by elevating the emperor.
The domain armies were abolished in 1871.
The samurai were stripped of their privileges due to the example of the French Revolution.
Some samurai rose up against their loss of privileges, but these uprisings were not coordinated or effective.
The leaders of the Meiji Restoration were impressed by the active participation of French citizens in the defense of Paris during the Franco-Prussian War.
Ordinary people had to be trained to fight in order for Japan to survive.
The French law was modeled after the conscrip tion law.
Unlike French law, it did not apply to first sons.
German instructors were recruited to teach at the new War College to improve the training of soldiers.
The young samurai were trained to be professional officers.
The first success of this approach was in 1877, when the professional army of draftees crushed the rebels.