A carbon-to-sulfur bond can be formed with the release of Pi and PPi.
A vitamins B12 and c Homocysteine transmethylase uses a cofactor.
A, b, c. There is a 25-A-long channel between the active sites of adjacent a and b subunits.
The channel allows the indole to be spread through the protein from one binding site to the other.
If the indole molecule was allowed to leave the cell, it would alleviate the potential problem of the molecule spreading across the cell.
Control of the first step conserves the first compound, A, in the sequence and also saves metabolic energy by preventing subsequent reactions in the pathway.
The committed step would likely be stopped by compound G. The end product of a biosynthetic pathway can control the step.
The choices are correct.
When all eight compounds are bound to the same thing, it's inactive.
Cumulative feedback inhibition can be seen in the control of this enzyme.
Glutamine synthesizer can be modified by attaching anAMP to each of its 12 subunits.
The more adenylylated the enzyme is, the more susceptible it is to feedback inhibition.
The sensitivity of the enzyme to its effectors is altered by covalent modification.
There is an added level of control that exists in this system.
The answer is incorrect because the Se analog of cysteine is in the glutathione peroxidase.
(c) is incorrect because asparagine is the beginning of NO.
The Chinese hamster ovary cells are partially dependent on glycine.
The change in the serine transhydroxymethylase's form affects the conversion of serine to glycine and the hydrofolate as an acceptor of the hydroxymethyl group.
cysteine was thought to be an essential amino acid in early studies.
In 1937, Abraham White and E. F. Beach showed that cysteine could be removed.
Rats fed on treated hydrolysates could grow if there was enough methionine in the diet.
The essential amino acids can't be made in humans.
The a-keto acid analogs that correspond to the essential amino acids can be used in the diet.
The formation of glutamine from glutamate and ammonia is catalyzing in muscle, while the molecule of ATP is not.
CHAPTER 24 of formation of glutamine is very low, but a high level ofglutaminase activity is observed.
GS, the deadenylylated form, GS-(AMP)1, and GS-(AMP)12 are the fully adenylylated forms.
All of the 20 common amino acids are found in mammals.
When one of the essential amino acids is missing from the diet, moreProtein is degraded than is synthesised.
The diagram shows the synthesis of a compound that is required for the oxidation of fatty acids.
Then name compound B and compound C.
The synthesis of ornithine requires the acetylation of glutamate.
Deficiency in one or another of the enzymes of the urea cycle can cause elevated levels of ammonia in blood.
The measures taken to relieve hyperammonemia have included limiting the intake of vitamins and minerals, administering a-keto analogs of L-amino acids, and administering other compounds designed to exploit pathways of nitrogen metabolism and excretion.
Plants are capable of synthesizing all 20 common amino acids.
Glyphosate, a weed killer sold under the trade name "Roundup", is an analogue of a key enzyme in the pathway for chorismate biosynthesis.
The compound is very effective at killing plants, but has no effect on mammals.
None of the intermediates in the tryptophan biosynthetic pathway are produced under these conditions.
The levels of intermediates increase even though there is no net production of tryptophan.
Both genetic and biochemical methods have been used to establish the biosynthetic path.
One of the most well-known approaches is the use of radioactiveglucose as the sole source of carbon for growingbacteria.
If a nonradioactive intermediate is added to a pathway, it will reduce radioactivity of that intermediate and others in the pathway.
The biosynthetic pathway for threonine, methionine, and other amino acids was examined.
The isoleucine, threonine, and methionine isolated from the cells had little or no radioactivity.
If cells were grown with or without the addition of nonradioactive homoserine, the radioactivity of aspartate and lysine was the same.
In a similar experiment, nonradioactive aspartate was used in the growth medium, as was the partate from methionine, threonine, and isoleucine.
threonine and isoleucine were the only things that had reduced radioactivity.
They only affected their own levels of radioactivity when nonradioactive isoleucine or methionine was used.
On the basis of these observations, write an outline of the biosynthetic pathway.
In the reaction catalyzed by d-aminolevuli nate synthase, glycine condenses with CoA to form d-aminolevulinate.
There will be a decrease in the rate of heme synthesis.
The roles of methionine in the active methyl cycle and in the synthesis of cysteine were confirmed by later work.
adenosylhomocysteine is cleaved to yield homocysteine and adenosine.
cystathionine can be formed when homocysteine condenses with serine and is cleaved to yield cysteine and a-ketobutyrate.
Rats that are fed homocysteine along with a hydrolysate will not need methionine.
Many studies show that some of the enzymes needed for the synthesis of these structures are missing.
The transamination of alanine begins the redistribution of the label.
Other a-keto acids are served by glutamate.
If you want to make a labeled a-keto acid analog, you have to postulate the transamination of that amino acid to make it, followed by the donation of a labeled group from another donor.
Ammonia is toxic and must be removed from the cells.
The synthesis of urea can be done in the liver.
glutamine is an efficient carrier of ammonia and can be formed in muscle cells.
This accounts for the high activity in the muscle.
The high activity ofglutaminase in the liver is due to the fact that the glutamine is transported by the blood.
Both aspartate and ammonia are used in the synthesis of urea, a non-toxic and disposable form of ammonia.
Because glutamine is utilized for the synthesis of a variety of compounds, complete inhibition of the enzyme by only one of those products, such as tryptophan, would be inappropriate.
There are at least eight different nitrogen-containing compounds that are cumulatively inhibited by the enzyme.
Even when other nitrogen-based compounds are present, these molecules signal the need for glutamine.
Every round of adenylylation and deadenylylation leads to the destruction of ATP.
There is no need for complex regulation in mammals.
Although both essential and non essential amino acids are continuously recycled during these processes, re utilization is not completely efficient.
In mammals, the only sources of essential amino acids are the body tissues and the diet.
In order to generate the missing essential amino acid, cells accelerate the hydrolysis of their own proteins.
It is not known how the rate of proteolysis is accelerated in response to a deficiency.
ammonia will be produced during the oxidation of those amino acids.
The level of nitrogen excretion increases when ammonia concentration in the body increases.
The diet needs to have lysine and other essential acids.
adenosylmethionine is derived from methionine.
The pathway for the synthesis of ornithine from glutamine, along with part of the urea cycle pathway, can be considered a de novo pathway for the synthesis of arginine.
Arginine can be used for the synthesis of urea, or it can be used for the synthesis of polypeptide synthesis.
The semialdehyde molecule is formed.
The formation of the pyrroline ring is prevented by the blocking of the condensation of the amino group with the aldehyde group.
The pathway can proceed toward the synthesis of ornithine.
It is possible to take up nontoxic forms of ammonia generated by muscle and other tissues with the help of the liver.
These compounds and carbon dioxide are used in the production of urea in the body.
The degradation of those amino acids that aren't needed immediately for synthesis or the production of other nitrogen-based compounds is what happens.
Ammonia is one of the products of degradation.
The synthesis of urea is accomplished through the conversion of ammonia to nitrogen carriers such as alanine, glutamate, and glutamine.
Reducing ammonia production in the tissues of a patient with a deficiency in urea synthesis would be expected.
In the tissues, the turnover and degradation of genes and the creation of essential amino acids can take place.
The condition of hyperammonemia would be worsened by a complete restriction of the diet.
The result of this process may be the elimination, degradation or use of nonessential amino acids.
It might be better to use analogs of essential amino acids because tissues are more likely to need them.
Chorismate is an intermediate in the synthesis of aromatic amino acids.
The mammals don't make these acids from chorismate.
They can synthesise tyrosine from phenylalanine if they get the essential aromatic amino acids from the diet.
Glyphosate prevents the synthesis of aromatic amino acids in plants.
The compound has no effect on mammals because they don't have an active pathway.
The production of downstream intermediates in the biosynthetic pathway can be stopped by stopping the first step in the pathway.
When anthranilate synthase activity is no longer inhibited, the levels of tryptophan in the body decrease.
An increase in anthranilate production leads to an increase in the production of other intermediates in the pathway.
The concentrations of intermediates are higher in the presence of exogenous tryptophan than in the presence of the block at the step.
When aspartate is included in the growth medium, the radioactivity of the five amino acids is reduced.
The labeling of isoleucine, threonine, and methionine is affected by Homoserine.
Homoserine is an intermediate in the pathway for those three amino acids.
threonine and isoleucine were found to be on the same pathway, separated from the other three.
When isoleucine is used in growth experiments, it shows that it is not on other pathways and that threonine must precede it in a biosynthetic pathway.
The pathway shows that aspartate is the source of lysine and Homoserine.
Threonine and isoleucine are both derived from aspartate and must be intermediates in their synthesis.
pyruvate is converted to alanine via transamination, and 2 NAD+ + 2 glutamate + 2 alanine + 2 a Glucose-ketoglutarate + 2 ATP + 2 NADH + H+ is converted to pyruvate via glycolysis.
A likely reaction intermediate is 5-methyltetrahydrofolate 4. g-Glutamylphosphate.
The water-sol uble conjugate is much less acidic than isovaleric acid.
R. M. Cohn, M. Yudkoff, R. Rothman, and S. Segal are authors.
Nitrogen fixation is carried out by them.
O2 is not produced in the absence of photosystem II.
The nitrogenase is quickly inactivated by O2.
The reducing environment is called the cytosol.
The synthesis of d-aminolevulinate requires an intermediate in the citric acid cycle.
It makes sense to have the first step in porphyrin biosynthesis take place in the matrix.
Transamination of pyruvate and oxaloacetate can be used to make Alanine and aspartate.
The common intermediate in these reactions is glutamate.
The net rate would be equal to 100 x 0.6 x 0.4 s-1, or 24-1 s.
The internal aldimine in which PLP is connected to a lysine is notadenosylmethionine.
The original internal aldimine between PLP and lysine will be restored so that the cofactor can be prepared for another round of synthesis.
The D-serine or L-serine base can be given if the a-hydrogen is reattached from one of the faces.
The reaction will have an equilibrium constant.
Oxaloacetate and a-ketoglutarate are intermediates in the citric acid cycle.
Increased synthesis of aspartate and glutamate could deplete the citric acid cycle intermediates.
The cell would need to break down carbohydrates to replenish its supply.
A deficiency in SAM could diminish the extent of the methylation of the bacteria's DNA.
The lower level of methylation would make the DNA more susceptible to digestion.
Light-adapted plants have higher levels of Asn and Gly than dark-adapted plants.
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