On May 10, 1869, Americans poured into the streets for a giant party.
Cattlemen on the Plains of the day four years earlier were reminded of Philadelphia's joyful throngs when news had arrived of Lee's surrender.
The First National Park and Central Pacific railroads had driven a golden spike at Promontory Point, Utah, linking up their lines.
The track was broken from the Atlantic to the Pacific.
California's first overland delivery to the East was Plains St. Louis.
Growth west of the Mississippi was fueled by Grant's Peace Policy trade and tourism.
The End of armed resistance in San Francisco increased the amount of imports it handled from $7.4 million to $49 million over thirty years.
The railroad was a political triumph.
Republicans won the Civil War and saw themselves as heirs to the American System.
The key to nation building was government intervention in the economy.
Republicans enjoyed a decade of unparalleled federal power, unlike Whigs, who had plans met stiff Democratic opposition.
After the Civil War, the U.S. government spent more per person than before.
Republicans believed that national economic integration was the best guarantor of peace.
On one point, the minister was wrong.
The creation of a continental empire caused a lot of woe.
If the United States subdued native peoples and established favorable conditions for international investors, western regions could be incorporated.
The United States became an industrial power because of conquering the West, but it also deepened America's rivalry with European empires and created new patterns of exploitation.
Americans looked to the west after the Civil War.
The lands held by Native Ameri cans are held by ranchers, farmers, and lumbermen.
Steamboats and railroads, both visible in the background of this image, became celebrated as symbols of the expanding reach of U.S. economic might.
There are plentiful natural resources to be found out west, as well as the land available for ranching, farming, and commerce.
There are men in the lower left corner.
The Mexican War was part of the pre-Civil Reshaping of the former Confederacy.
The Second National Bank of Andrew Jackson was one of the reasons why the coasts now link by rail, merchants and manufac.
When the United States became vulnerable presence in Hawaii, Americans established a dominant chaos.
Both the U.S. Navy and private cycles of boom and bust were caused by the advent of Land speculation.
There were different regions of the country and Pacific left because of the failure to fund a transconti shippers.
Before the Civil War, Republicans believed that these commercial aims would cause the U.S. government to force Japan to a new direction.
While the war raged, Congress made vigorous dealings with Portuguese traders in the 1600s, and Japanese leaders used federal power to launch the transcontinental rail.
Repub agricultural products, like wool ings, were irrelevant if Japan wanted them.
Commodore Matthew licans used federal power and sugar.
Edo is the capital of Japan.
The United States was in America's domestic market.
Mexico's government was set up by the economic depression that began in 1873.
May 5, 1867, when Mexico overthrew the French invaders, had limits on Republicans' economic ambitions.
The emperor was executed.
Their policies continued to shape the economy.
William was the architect of this vision.
The United States emerged from the Civil War with new leverage in its negotiation with European coun commerce and a belief that Asia would become the chief theatre of world events.
Great Britain's navy urged the Senate to purchase sites in the Pacific and the seas.
Britain allowed the Confederates to raid the Caribbean.
Many Americans were happy to join Britain, France, and the Netherlands in victory.
Spanish territories to drop into the Union's lap.
The senator urged the annexation of Hawaii.
The port of Yokohama became popular with American and European ships after the United States opened Japan to foreign trade in 1854.
Two women dressed in Western style watch the arrival of another boat as goods are carried onto an American merchant ship.
A steamship flies the Dutch flag while a rowboat carries the flag of France in the background.
Thirty years from now, the United States would claim that the Philippines and Republican successors would build a Panama canal.
The short-term achievements were modest.
Exhausted by the civil war, Americans had little enthusiasm for the integration of the national economy.
Two significant victories were achieved by Seward.
The rights of U.S. missionaries in China and States began before the Civil War, with the first set of official terms for the emigration of Chinese laborers, locomotives arriving from Britain in the early 1830s.
The purchase of Alaska from Russia could be negotiated.
The Senate approved the deal after run in the dark and never needed to rest.
Our nation has no fodder or canals.
We will know, trade, and tourism wherever we go.
The sea in endless circles flow like a transcontinental railroad.
In 1865, Chinese workers built a 90-foot high trestle over the divide between the American and Bear rivers at Secret Town in the Sierra Nevada Mountains.
In 1877, the Chinese workers were back at work on the site, this time burying the trestle to avoid the danger of a fire.
The United States chose the private approach, unlike most European countries.
The fed ness to become a corporation by simply applying for a government, however, provided essential loans, state charter.
Corporations became subsidies and grants of public land.
States and locali large interstate enterprises, private railroads, and many other ties lured railroads with offers of financial aid, freer than earlier companies to do as they pleased.
After the Civil War, they received a lot of public aid with little strings attached.
Their position would probably have been concentrated in urban areas.
Critics acknowledged that public aid to the less well-off was a boom after the big federal bail.
Most of the giant companies were not good for the economy by 1900, but they did have rail service.
It lent government support to the railroads built across the border into Mexico.
They adopted a legal form of organization, the formative power of railroads, that enabled them to raise private capital tariffs that helped build other U.S. industries.
State legisla tiles and steel in the Northeast and Midwest were used to create public tariffs on imported sugar and wool, as well as binding these creations to government goals and sheep ranching in the West.
Administered and funded by tariffs.
By 1890, the nation had 167,000 miles of rail track.
The nation's rail network was essentially completed during the last twenty years of construction, although there would be additional expansion for the next two decades.
The main areas of growth were in the South and west of the Mississippi.
The gray lines mark the time zones introduced by the railroad companies.
Republicans who were protectionist had high tariffs.
The debt of the Union was similar to the abolition of slavery because of the Civil War.
The most vulnerable workers were erased by the tariffs.
Both sides were correct in the debates.
It's hard to imagine a situation like that today.
As Reconstruction waned, protective tariffs played a powerful role in the economy.
The United States became a political fire thanks to them.
Democrats said tariffs taxed global industrial power.
Republicans had to admit that Democrats cost imported goods and that they had to pay subsidies to U.S. manufacturers.
Republicans claimed that they were in the United States.
Corporations accumulated that tariffs benefited workers because they created massive benefits from tariffs but failed to pass them jobs, blocked low-wage foreign competition, and safe along to workers, who often toiled long hours for low guarded America from the kind of industrial poverty wages.
According to this argument, the tariffs helped American men earn enough to support and wield near-monopoly power.
The rise of large families; wives could devote themselves to home private corporations and trusts that generated enduring making, and children could go to school.
This map is based on an 1885 traveler's guide and includes the company's U.S. lines and Mexican Central Railroad.
The dots show the stops that the trains made between major cities.
Most Mexican rail United States roads were built by U.S. companies.
Consider how residents of the two countries may have experienced the railroad's arrival in different ways.
Republicans didn't give government the power to impede business or fragment the national marketplace because they didn't believe in too many state and local regulations.
In the 1870s, they interpreted the "due process" clause of the new Fourteenth amendment to mean that no state could "deprive any person of life".
The justices took away the rights of African Americans.
Standing ratio was promoted by federal courts in the Southwest.
After the US Treasury stopped minting the economy, Mexican farm took over America's industrial land.
Railroads and an influx of notes from an expanded system of national banks were brought about by the replacement of paper dollars with post-Civil War years.
Mexican shepherds were often asked to exchange these notes for gold after this process was complete.
The court invalidated most makers sharply limited the nation's money supply to traditional claims, including those of many New the level of available gold.
Mexican Americans lost 64 per person in 1865, but it fell to $19.36 per person in 1880.
Most economists wouldn't approve of such a plan, sold or appropriated through legal machinations for an economy growing at a rapid pace.
Increasing money known as the Santa Fe Ring is what they would recommend.
Supplies were displaced to keep up with development.
The policymakers remembered rampant antebellum farmers.
Some found work as railroad builders or mine speculation, while others moved into the high country to fight in the Civil War.
As a developing country of the Sierras and Rockies, the United States developed sheep raising into a major enterprise to attract investment capital from Britain.
European nations were on the gold standard.
In an era of nation building, U.S. and currency for gold encouraged European investors.
Industrializing nations tried to Republican policies and developed an international system of standard measure that was breathtakingly rapid integration of the economy.
The nation was tied together by pro roads and telegraphs.
As each nation succumbed to self-interest, facturers amassed staggering amounts of capital and built governments agreed that, for "scientific" corporations of national and even global scope.
Money should be based on gold because it was thought to have an inherent worth above other metals.
The United States, Germany, and other countries converted to gold during the 1870s and 1880s.
The Republicans wanted farms as well as factories beforehand.
As early as 1860, they issued both gold and silver coins, with popular lyrics hailing the advent of "Uncle respective weights fixed at a relative value."
States switched to the gold standard because they wanted to give the sons of toil a warm welcome.
The We've room enough and land enough, they needn't be alarmed by the discovery of huge silver deposits, such as Nevada's alarmed, without comparable new gold strikes.
A lot of silver would upset the farm.
For ordinary land to anyone who improved the Americans who went west, dreams often outran reality.
The Republicans hoped the bill would help build corporations, not individual prospec up the interior West, which was inhabited by Indian tors, but remained empty on the U.S. government.
The plan needed innovative poli cies to be implemented.
Congress funded a series of geological sur strike spread, sending U.S. Army officers, scientists, and scenes of prospectors, traders, prostitutes, and saloon photographers to chart unknown western terrain.
The modern form of mining, which was invented in California in the 19th century, was based on surface veins of gold.
The technology was simple, using high-pressure streams of water to wash away hillsides of gold-bearing soil.
The profits from hydraulic mining helped transform western mining into a big business.
The large scale on which the mining was done wreaked havoc on the environment.
Florence veins needed a lot of money.
Both sides of the U.S. have central and smelting operations.
Veins of gold and silver form when molten material from the earth's core is forced up into fissures caused by the movements of mountain ranges.
The prospectors discovered San Francisco after 1848.
The Los Angeles great plateaus are not shaped by the ancient tectonic activity.
The settlement of the Pacific Slope was a ghost town.
In 1860, the economic development of the Pacific slope landscape with mountains of debris, poisoned water, and surrounding lands stripped of timber was fully under way in northern sources.
California barely began anywhere else.
The General Mining Act of Pacific Northwest was passed by Congress in order to encourage development of the western part of the country.
During the great gold rushes overhunting and the introduction of the European animal of California, supply centers were created to protect a colony.
The residents of Tacoma are decimating the herds.
In the 1870s, hide hunt Washington claimed to have finished them off so thoroughly that only a few hundred bison remained in the U.S. terri Pacific.
There are hunters hidden under the right con.
Rival businessmen in Seattle were able to kill four dozen at a time without promoting their city as the gateway to Alaska.
They left the meat to rot.
Seattle, a town with 1,000 residents in 1870, was an act of waste that shocked native peoples.
South Texas was an early model for ambitious plans.
Cattlemen on the Plains grazed five million head of longhorn cattle by the end of the Civil War.
While boomtowns arose across the West, hunters Railroad reached Sedalia, Missouri, far enough west to begin transforming the plains.
Texas reentered the Union late in the Civil War.
Great herds of bison still roam this region.
It might cost $3 in Texas to get to Sedalia.
The alleged ruggedness, individual freedoms, and gun-slinging capabilities of western cowboys were celebrated in popular dime novels as early as the 1860s.
Wage workers on horseback were depicted in the photograph.
In return for long hours of work, a group of people, including many blacks and Hispanics, earned $25 a month, plus meals and a bed in the bunkhouse.
The invention of barbed wire made it possible for the Great Plains to be conquered.
The most familiar form of barbed wire was patented by Glidden in 1874.
Glidden invented machinery to mass-produce wire, and his business associates promoted the product to farmers in the West.
80 million pounds of barbed wire a year was sold by Glidden's company.
The newthorny fence had a downside as shown in this image.
barbed wire caused injuries to animals that other businessmen profited from.
Back east, ranchers are at Abilene and Dodge City, Kansas.
The reality of the Wild West was less exciting than the imagination would have you believe.
Farmers had to be persuaded that the hands on horseback who worked long, harsh hours for crops would grow there because Cowboys, many of them Republicans, imagined the Great Plains dotted with Americans and Latinos.
Powerful interests were low paying.
Railroads are eager to sell and explorers are eager for a taste of the West.
By the land the government had granted them, there were as many as 7.5 million cattle.
The plains' native grasses are grazed by land speculators.
A cycle of good lines and western states and territories joined the weather postponing disaster.
The Newcomers found an awful scene of rot beneath the native carcasses as they rode onto the rie grasses.
They were able to range that spring with steel plows.
The cattle boom collapsed after the barbed wire pro broke through the tough roots.
Thanks to new strategies, cattle ranching European immigrants brought strains of hard-kernel survived and became part of the integrated national wheat that could tolerate the extreme temperatures of the economy.
Railroads went to Texas and ranchers plains.
The invention of cycle occurred between 1878 and 1886, increasing barbed wire, which enabled ranchers and farmers to rainfall in the arid regions east of the Rockies.
Some said the cattlemen in the northern part of the country fence small areas and feed ani rain, while others said they grow trees and hay.
Stockyards appeared next to God.
A family has moved into a new frame house.
The photographer may have been asked to include the windmill in his picture.
A woman poses with her new hand-cranked washing machine in a 1907 photograph on the property.
Western wheat traveled by rail to elevators.
Wanting to better themselves economically was the motivation for most settlers, American or frontier land values.
Settlement rushed into debt to acquire more land and better equip Kansas and other plains states was a major role in the boom times.
In the 1870s, land sion hit northern Europe, Norwegians and speculation borrowed money, and Swedes joined German emigrants in large numbers.
Farming was the peak of "American fever" in 1882, more than any other business, according to the agricultural journal.
The primary languages in parts of Minnesota and the Dakotas were Swedish and Norwegian.
The plains repre cowboys were mostly male, but homestead sent a promised land of freedom to some African Americans.
The group of ing was a family affair.
Black communities left Mississippi and Louisiana in order to escape poverty and white violence in order to have a successful farm.
Most of the 6,000 animals and dens left together, carrying little but the harvest time.
Some women were struck out by their own: clothes on their backs.
The largest African American concentra parents were reported in the 1880 census, with 40,000 blacks working land adjacent to sisters, brothers and there.
In the West, family members supported one another because of the expanding work of farming and the cotton frontier that attracted hundreds of thousands of lines.
Looking back at black migrants.
Republicans have big new machines to help with plowing and harvesting.
The Mormons moved from the ground to Utah in the 1840s.
The cycle of rain shifted from wet to more than one wife.
Mormons had their own view of women's oven's fury.
She left her mother and some recently settled lands to join the exodus to Utah in 1848.
The seventh wife of church arid West needed methods other than those used by east elder Daniel Wells.
The Mississippi was organized in 1870.
Since most Utah women were Mormons, the measure increased the number of Mormons in the state.
Dry farming developed on a huge male.
The central role of women in corporate farms in the Red River Valley of North Mormon life was recognized.
Even family farms, the norm elsewhere, could not survive on less than 300 acres of grain.
Women's voting rights became too low and the climate too unpredictable as inter prices became too low.
I was encouraged to let farmers get by on less.
Wells's candidacy in a local election was blocked because of the legislature's wild nature.
When Utah gained statehood in 1896, Wells sity, which was what farming the plains really meant, had the pleasure of watching several women win seats opened pathways for exotic, destructive pests and in the new legislature, including Dr. Martha.
The first American woman to serve in a state senate was at the turn of the twentieth century.
Utah's women experienced a combination of severe from the Great Plains, like their counterparts in other western states.
There are new opportunities in the dry areas of the frontier.
The largest, longest-run agricultural host of challenges, particularly the natural cultural and environmental miscalculation in the Great Plains, was faced by homesteaders.
Home predicted the catastrophe in the spring.
The rapids of the Colorado River were hard to find on the plains.
Families are in wooden boats.
In 1870, Utah's territorial legislature granted voting rights to women.
The decision shocked advocates of women's suffrage in the East, who thought their first big victories would come in New England.
Utah was mostly peopled by Mormons from the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.
Mormonism was seen as a patriarchal religence by critics.
They disliked the Mormon practice ofplural marriage, in which some Mormon men took more than one wife.
In the West this practice was seen as degrading to women.
The Mormons were pressured to abolish their marriages over the next two decades.
Congress refused to admit Utah as a state because Mormon women and men were required to take an anti-polygamy oath.
Utah statehood was possible only after 1890, when the Mormon church abolished polygamous marriages.
When Utah became a state in 1896, women's voting rights were restored.
If Polygamy should be abolished in Utah, then no compromise should be made on her book to criticize the practice.
The majority of Mormon women defended their faith by hiding from him and marrying multiple times.
She feels that what has been can't be undone now, and that she wouldn't change it if she were here.
Mormons dominated the Utah leg.
He will not receive as much protection from the Mormons as he might from one alone, because most of the non- Mormons were single men.
Some women think that the spirit of God is present.
But it's teachers, professionals, and midwives.
In Utah, woman best affections, and all that is worth calling love, are fakes by our enemies.
She doesn't act from love because she's in a state of vassalage, and indifference has taken over.
We would prefer life for children to feel it.
Were it possible for us to escape?
There is nothing tery, prostitution or foeticide that can be done by women who are monogamy.
Women in Utah comprehend hood for themselves and their children.
They see in the principle of plurality of wives, establishments and free schools that there is no manufacturing this.
Women here, the only safeguard against adultery, prostitution, and the as everywhere, must be able to live honestly and honor reckless waste of pre-natal life, practiced throughout the ably without men, before it can be possible to save the land.
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