Many women's traditional domestic tasks were transformed by the market revolution.
As new mechanized production increased the volume and variety of fabrics available to ordinary people, cloth production advanced throughout the market revolution.
Many better-off women were relieved by this.
Women's home-based cloth production became less important as cloth production became commercially important.
The transformation of women from producers to consumers began with the purchase of cloth and ready-made clothes.
Martha, her daughters, and her female neighbors spun and plied linen and woolen yarns and used them to produce a variety of fabrics for her.
The production of cloth and clothing was labor intensive and only for home consumption.
Women became skilled consumers when they could buy cheap imported cloth to turn into clothing.
They stewarded their husbands' money by haggling over prices.
Mrs. Peter Simon, a captain's wife, inspected twentysix yards of Holland cloth to make sure it was worth the price.
The mistress of the household trusted her discriminating eye alone for expensive or specific purchases while servants or slaves made low-value purchases.
Women can use their skills into businesses.
Women who work as seamstresses, milliners, or laundresses can also work for neighbors, acquaintances, or combine clothing production with management of a boardinghouse.
Domestic expectations were the same in the slave states.
Women were working in the fields.
Whites argued that African American women were better suited for agricultural labor because they were less delicate and womanly than white women.
White plantation mistresses were protected from manual labor because of their whiteness, according to the southern ideal.
Despite the cultural stigma attached to it, most white women in the slave states continued to assist with planting, harvesting, and processing agricultural projects.
White southerners produced a lot of their food and clothing at home.
When they were producers of cash crops, white southerners insisted that their adherence to plantation slavery and racial hierarchy made them morally superior to greedy northerners.
The ways of life of southerners and northerners were incompatible.
The legal status of women remained the same despite the market revolution.
Women were rendered legally dead by the idea of coverture, a custom that counted married couples as a single unit.
Without special precautions or interventions, women couldn't earn The MaRkeT RevoluTIon 217 their own money, own their own property, or be sued.
Their husbands owned any money earned or spent.
At any time, husbands could end their wives' access to their credit at any time.
Divorce was only legal in a few states, such as Massachusetts and Connecticut, where marriage was a civil contract rather than a religious one.
Marriage was a legal contract.
The legal realities began to change the ideas of marriage.
The shift from "institutional" to "companionate" marriage began during this period.
Institutional marriages were primarily labor arrangements that maximized the couple's and their children's chances of surviving and thriving.
Both men and women assessed each other's skills as they related to household production.
Under the influence of Enlightenment thought, young people began to privilege character and compatibility in their potential partners.
Marriages led to the largest redistribution of property prior to the settlement of estates at death.
The means of redistribution were changing.
In the North, land became less important as wealthy young men became not only farmers and merchants but bankers, clerks, or professionals.
A complex economy that offered new ways to store, move, and create wealth was one of the reasons why young people embraced affection and attraction.
To be considered a success in family life, a middle-class American man usually aspires to own a comfortable home and to marry a woman of strong morals and religious conviction who would take responsibility for raising well-behaved children.
The duties of the middleclass husband and wife would be clearly defined.
The husband alone was responsible for creating wealth and engaging in politics.
The wife was responsible for keeping a good home, being careful with household expenses, and raising children, inculcating them with the middle-class virtues that would ensure their future success.
Poor families couldn't sacrifice the economic contributions of their wives and children.
Between 1820 and 1860, five million immigrants arrived in the United States.
New lives and economic opportunities were sought by Irish, German, and Jewish immigrants.
One out of eight Americans were born outside the United States by the Civil War.
Push and pull factors drew immigrants to the United States.
Common land rights for Irish farmers were revoked in England due to an economic slump.
Many Catholics in the south of Ireland sought greater opportunity elsewhere because of these policies.
Irish immigrants were drawn to ports along the eastern United States because of the booming American economy.
Irish immigrants came to the United States without the capital and skills required to purchase and operate farms, and instead settled in northeastern cities and towns.
Chain migration is when Irish men emigrate alone and practice it.
Irish men were able to send some of their wages home to support their families in Ireland or purchase tickets for relatives to come to the United States through chain migration.
Irish immigration began in the 1840s and 1850s when the Irish Famine caused a huge exodus out of Ireland.
Irish workers in northern cities were compared to African Americans and anti-immigration newspapers portrayed them as dangerous as 1.7 million Irish fled starvation between 1840 and 1860.
Irish immigrants left an indelible mark on American culture by retaining their social, cultural, and religious beliefs.
Most German immi grants used American ports and cities as temporary waypoints before they settled in the rural countryside.
The United States received over 1.5 million immigrants from Germany during the antebellum era.
Many Germans sought steadier economic opportunity despite fleeing declining agricultural conditions and the failed revolutions of 1848.
German immigrants were able to enter middle-class trades because of their skills and capital.
The MaRkeT RevoluTIon 219 Northwest was where Germans migrated to farm in rural areas and then practiced trades in growing communities such as St. Louis, Cincinnati, and Milwaukee.
The regions of the republic were transformed by Catholic and Jewish Germans.
New York's Jewish population increased from five hundred in 1824 to forty thousand in 1860.
Jewish immigrants hailing from southwestern Germany and parts of occupied Poland moved to the United States through family units.
Jewish immigrants rarely settled in rural areas.
Jewish immigrants found work in retail, commerce, and tailoring once established.
They quickly became part of the American market economy.
Jewish immigrants built synagogues and made their mark on American culture, just as Irish immigrants did through the construction of churches and Catholic schools.
Many native-born Anglo-Protestant Americans were upset by the sudden influx of immigration.
The nativist movement wanted to limit European immigration and prevent Catholics from establishing churches and other institutions.
nativism even spawned its own political party in the 1850s, as it was popular in northern cities with large Catholic populations.
The American Party had success in local and state elections.
European immigration was slowed by the rise of the KnowNothings.
nativism, the Crimean War, and improved economic conditions in Europe discouraged potential migrants from traveling to the United States after 1855.
After the American Civil War, immigration levels would match and surpass levels seen in the past.
Irish immigrants swelled the ranks of the working class and encountered the politics of industrial labor in northern cities.
During the early republic, many workers formed trade unions.
Philadelphia's Federal Society of Journeymen Cordwainers and the Carpenters' Union of Boston were both in major American cities.
The Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court ruled in favor of the Boston bootmakers' union in 1842, arguing that the workers were capable of acting in such a way as to serve their own interests.
After the case, unions remained in a precarious legal position.
Labor activists in the 1840s wanted to limit working hours and protect children.
A ten-hour workday was established by the New England Association of Farmers, Mechanics and Other Workingmen.
The ten-hour day would allow time and opportunities for intellectual and moral improvement and improve the immediate conditions of laborers.
The Ten-Hour movement spread to other major cities after a strike in Boston in 1835.
Some of the earliest strikes for better conditions were launched by women.
Textile operatives walked off their jobs in Massachusetts in 1834 and 1836.
Female operatives provided crucial support during the Ten-Hour movement.
Like male activists, Bagley and her associates used the desire for mental improvement as a central argument for reform.
The movement achieved only partial success despite widespread support.
The ten-hour-day policy was established by President Van Buren.
Pennsylvania and New Hampshire both passed statewide laws in 1847.
Workers in both states were allowed to work more than ten hours a day.
Child labor was a major issue in the American labor movement.
The middleclass supported the protection of child laborers more than adult workers.
A petition from parents in Fall River, a southern Massachusetts mill town that employed a high portion of child workers, asked the legislature for a law prohibiting the employment of children in manufacturing establishments at an age and for a number of hours which must be permanently injurious to their health.
Children under the age of twelve are not allowed to work more than ten hours a day.
Every state in New England followed Massachusetts's lead by the midnineteenth century.
The age of protection of labor and the assurance of school were extended by these statutes.
Male workers sought to improve their income and working conditions to create a household that kept women and children protected within the domestic sphere.
The movement remained moderate and labor gains were limited.
Labor activism in antebellum America was largely wedded to the free labor ideal despite its challenge to industrial working conditions.
The labor movement supported the northern free soil movement, which challenged the spread of slavery in the 1840s, but also promoted the superiority of the northern system of commerce over the southern one.
During the early 19th century, southern agriculture produced by slaves fueled northern industry produced by wage workers and was managed by the new middle class.
New transportation, new machinery, and new organizations of labor integrated the previously isolated pockets of the colonial economy into a national industrial operation.
At the same time that ideology drove Americans apart, industrialization and the cash economy tied diverse regions together.
Political leaders claimed the American Revolution's legacy for the North by celebrating the freedom of contract that distinguished the wage worker from the indentured servant of previous generations or the slave in the southern cotton field.
The rise of child labor, the demands of workers to unionize, the economic vulnerability of women, and the influx of non-Anglo immigrants left many Americans questioning the meaning of liberty after the market revolution.
The chapter was edited by Jane Fiegen Green, with contributions from Kelly Arehart, Lindsay Keiter, and William Kerrigan.
There are 3,568 enslaved people in the northern states in the 1830 census.
The Massachusetts Historical Society had an advertisement for Colburn's school for young gentle men.
The MaRkeT RevoluTIon 225 tices were given to Sylvester Lusk of Enfield, Connecticut by the Society for the Reformation of Juvenile Delinquents of the City of New York.
The Catholic University of America published "The Historical Development of Child-Labor Legislation in the United States" in 1921.
R ecoM M n De D R e a DI nG Ball was written by Edward J.