The Tenth Amendment gives states powers such as education, health, and safety.
The states cannot make laws that violate the rights of people living in those states, according to Choice C. The Bill of Rights was incorporated into the states.
State governments are established by Choice D.
Choice A is a result of something.
Choice B is a definition of hyperpluralism.
Choice C gives an incorrect consequence of pluralism.
Choice E is not a consequence of the elite playing a dominant role in the political process.
Supreme Court rulings are echoed by Choices A and B.
Choice C is correct, but has nothing to do with the exclusionary rule, and choice E is incorrect because of the Miranda ruling.
Corporations were not allowed to use money to make political advertisements before this decision.
Corporations are allowed to give soft money to political parties and hard money to candidates through their political action committees.
The Citizens United case did not give an opinion regarding unions' ability to collect dues from their members for political action, which is what they are allowed to do.
Reviewing aspects of laws passed by Congress is one way to do this.
The majority party has the power to review the structure of congressional committees.
The president can recommend legislation without congressional oversight.
Choices C and D are incorrect.
Lobbyists are hired by special interest groups to influence legislation.
Lobbyists will be hired by the National Rifle Association to give information to congressmen that will encourage them to vote against gun control legislation.
Political parties, not lobbyists, find candidates to run for office.
Special interest groups hire pollsters to determine public opinion.
Choice D is incorrect because special interest groups contribute money to political action committees.
Lobbyists don't try to influence the electorate at large, so Choice E is incorrect.
Congress gave President Johnson the green light to send more troops to Vietnam.
Presidential authority in the area of budgetary action and domestic policy is decreased by choice A.
Both the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks and the North American Free Trade Agreement had to be approved by the Senate.
The Senate only approves new justices when there is an opening on the Court.
Choice B is incorrect.
A constitutional amendment is required for choice D. Choice E is incorrect.
The other choices refer to aspects of the Supreme Court that don't support what the question is asking.
The clause explains where states get their powers.
You can see that choice A is the correct choice because block grants give funds for the states to spend without federal strings attached.
The correct answer in question 12 relates to federalism, the division of powers between the federal government and state governments.
Choices A, B, C, and E are incorrect.
The function of a whip is not to preside over a House session.
Lobbyists influence legislation in a negative way, but they are not solely responsible for gridlock.
In relation to the question, the other choices are incorrect.
Legislative bodies used to meet in secret executive sessions late at night.
The Freedom of Information Act gave citizens more rights to get information from the government.
Presidential electors are only obligated to vote for the candidate they supported in the election.
Choices B, C, and D are incorrect statements about the electoral college.
An example of a standing committee makes the question even easier.
It is easy to eliminate Choices A and C as incorrect answers.
In rare instances, Choice D may be true, but it doesn't describe the primary importance of standing committees.
The majority/minority split in the House is what causes standing committees to be divided proportionally between Democrats and Republicans.
Under certain circumstances, a dramatic upheaval of both houses could happen.
A, B, and C are incorrect statements.
Choice E is incorrect because it doesn't relate to the Senate.
All of the other choices are traditional Democratic ones.
There was a waiting period before an individual could buy a gun.
The bill was opposed by the gun proponents.
The right to life, liberty, and property are included in the Fifth Amendment.
Plea bargaining, choice D, is incorrect because it is not a guaranteed right.
Even though application or court challenge due process questions may arise, the other choices don't have direct procedural guarantees.
There is still a viable two-party system.
Choice B is not related to the poll results.
As a result of the Motor Voter Act, choice D is incorrect.
Choice A is an illegal action on the part of the president.
Choices B, D, and E are incorrect.
In order to have more of an impact on the process, New England states joined together in what became known as Junior Tuesday in 1994.
Choices A, B, and E are incorrect.
Although public opinion may change through the media's coverage, that answer does not reflect the purpose of the news media's coverage of campaigns.
The use of the word exclusively is to blame for Choice A being incorrect.
Although the statements have a degree of factual accuracy, they do not reflect the main criterion.
Most cabinet members come from the upper levels of the life.
Choices A, C, D, and E do not relate to the concept of senatorial courtesy.
Choices A, B, C, and E are all constitutionally delegated powers of the president.
The choices A-D are incorrect.
The other choices do not derive from the Enlightenment thinker.
Choices A, B, and C are anti-federalist choices.
Choice E is incorrect.
Choices A-D are examples of appellate jurisdiction.
Although true, choice A was not a primary reason for the decision.
The decision made it clear that the only way to get term limits is through a constitutional amendment.
Choice D is incorrect, and choice E is a legal action states can take.
Hispanic voters moved away from the Republican Party.
Choices A and B are incorrect because social conservatives have voted for Republicans in the past.
Choice D and Choice E do not define realignment.
Choices B, C, D, and E are incorrect.
The local level has the greatest control of party machinery.
Local candidates and grassroots candidates raise major funds for local candidates.
In the days of Boss Tweed, party bosses played a bigger role in party organizations than they do today.
The National Committee selects the party's chair.
You have to identify the passage as a Watergate-related quote in Question 37.
The result of the ruling was that Nixon had to turn over the tapes.
You had to know the definition of executive privilege and apply it to the principle of separation of powers in question 38.
The issue of deficit spending was raised by Ross Perot in 1992.
The other choices are not correct.
Legislators are more likely to respond to a lobbyist's position if they are armed with facts and figures.
Choices A, B, C, and E do not relate to the issue the question is raising.
Most incumbents have an advantage going into the election.
Choice B is correct.
Choice D doesn't get to the heart of the issue of incumbency--the ability to win reelection.
Choice E is not true.
Choices A, B, and E are incorrect.
Choice D doesn't reflect a practice of Reagan's policies.
Congress rejected Franklin Roosevelt's attempt to "pack the court" when he was unhappy with the decisions made by the court.
Even though a constitutional amendment could be an alternative, it is not the answer because it has never been proposed.
Choices A, B, C, and D are incorrect.
The guiding principles for creating legislative apportionment are not political gerrymandering or majority-minority districts.
Choices D and E are incorrect.
The issue of ethnic make-up refers to heritage.
Choices A, C, and E are incorrect.
There is no relationship between power and the caucus group.
Choices A, B, and E are incorrect.
Choice C has nothing to do with the issue of separation of church and state.
Choices B, C, and D have nothing to do with the commerce clause.
The size of the court is related to congressional authority.
The Senate took a long time to pass the bills it received from the House.
There has been disagreements between the parties in the past.
Choices B, C, and E are incorrect.
The federal government giving up control over the states is reflected in the other choices.
It's important to win a majority of the delegates in order to get the nomination.
If the candidate does not win the primary, the issues become irrelevant.
There are valid reasons why voter turnout is lower in off-year elections.
The primary role of the speaker is to establish a legislative agenda.
Newt Gingrich was responsible for pushing through the Republican Contract in 1994.
The other choices are correct.
Choices A, C, and E are incorrect.
Choice B is overstated.
More people are opting to be Independents since 2008.
Dealignment is what this is called.
In the last three presidential elections women have voted in higher numbers for the Democratic candidate than men have for either the Republican or Democratic candidate.
The youth vote increased for President Obama in the 2008 election.
The religious right vote was a factor in the 2004 election.
White Americans tend to vote Republican in presidential elections.
Choices A, B, C, and D are incorrect.
Choices A, B, D, and E are incorrect.
Even though a political debate may be a characteristic of high-tech campaigning, the inclusion of minor party candidates does not relate to the point of the question.
Special interest groups, along with political parties and the media, serve as a means through which issues and the public's policy preferences get on the government's policymaking agenda.
They are the policy specialists and interact with the political parties.
They have a lot of information that elected officials need to make decisions.
You can see why special interest groups have been criticized.
James Madison warned about the "mischief of factions" as early as 1787.
In the 19th and 20th centuries, the U.S. Congress investigated corruption and scandals in interest group activities.
Lobbyists and interest groups have jobs to do.
They provide crucial information to Congress, often with assurances of financial aid in the next campaign.
Special interest groups are known to hold up legislation in Congress, but they also speed up the process by saving congressmen the time needed to research particular issues.
There are instances of corruption and bribes involving special groups that are rare.
Special interest groups help to develop substantive public policy issues.
The Brady Bill is an example of how special interest groups have slowed down the legislative process.
James Brady was shot during the assassination attempt on President Reagan.
During the waiting period, a criminal background check would be done on the intended buyer.
The waiting period would help to regulate the people who could buy handguns.
One of the largest special interest groups in the country, the National Rifle Association, opposed the bill.
They were able to delay passage of the bill for more than a decade because of their interaction with Congress.
It was passed in a watered-down form.
This is an example of how special interest groups can affect the legislative process by delaying votes on a particular bill.
Special interest groups have helped shape the legislative process.
The views and opinions of large segments of America's population that can't be represented by one congressional district have been expressed by special interest groups.
Women's rights groups have helped women gain treatment that is equal to that of men.
The Equal Rights Act of 1966 gave women in government jobs equal pay for the same positions held by men.
The Americans with Disabilities Act was passed in 1991 to give equal employment opportunities to disabled people and allow them to experience the same American dream as nondisabled Americans.
Special interest groups have been a place for new ideas to come in the legislative process.
One point is earned for an example that supports the proposition that special interest groups are divisive and hinder the legislative process, and one point is earned for an example that refutes that proposition.
Special interest groups are legitimate because of the First Amendment to the Constitution.
Lobbyists and special interest groups give Congress important information that can speed up the legislative process.
Special interest groups help with public policy issues.
Since the election of Ronald Reagan in 1980, the issues of party realignment and party dealignment have become more and more prevalent in America's political arena.
During a critical election period, party realignment is the displacement of the majority party by the minority party.
People and politicians disengage from the major political parties over time.
Ronald Reagan defeated Jimmy Carter and the Republicans took control of the Senate.
The traditional base of the Democratic Party was represented by the Democrats who were upset over the hostage situation in Iran.
Many of them were blue collar workers who had suffered the most from Jimmy Carter's economic policies.
A majority of the electorate in the South voted for Reagan, an indicator of the realignment taking place.
The Republicans took control of the Senate in 1994.
They took control of the House of Representatives for the first time in 40 years.
Voters defeated more incumbents that year because of the "Contract With America" slogan, which was used to draw national attention to the election.
The 1992 party realignment of the "Solid South" reflected this event as it again switched loyalties and voted Republican.
Democratic voters left the party and elected Republicans in both houses of Congress.
During a critical election period, the majority party is displaced by the minority party.
People from the major political parties disengage and register as Independents.
One point is earned for an example and one point is earned for explaining how realignment had an impact on the election.
The demographic characteristics that have played a significant role in recent presidential elections are gender, age, and race.
In presidential elections, gender is one of the most significant demographic features.
There is a gender gap in the way men and women vote.
In the 2000 election, more women voted for Al Gore than for George W. Bush.
In 2004, the trend continued and in 2008 it became very large.
People vote in presidential elections based on their age.
In the three presidential elections displayed in the chart, 18- to 29-year-olds voted Democratic by a much larger percentage than Republican, and in 2004 and 2008 the percentage of 65 and over voted Republican.
The most important factor is race.
African-Americans voted heavily Democratic and a majority of white voters voted Republican in the three presidential elections.
The importance of demographic information in presidential politics cannot be overlooked.
By looking at the chart, it's clear that demographic trends are very consistent and where they vary, it's usually by a small percentage.
Candidates and parties target groups that have supported them before.
The Democrats went after the African-American vote in order to get the votes of white voters.
The candidates go after the so-called swing voters when the party's base is secured.
Swing voters can be found in the suburbs and that's why geography is so important.
In the 2000s, the Midwest suburbs became a battleground for the presidential candidates.
Each demographic characteristic is earned a point.
The demographic features chosen in (a) impacted presidential elections in 2000, 2004, or 2008.
Explaining how demographic factors are important in presidential elections earns one point.
Swing voters can be identified by the candidates through voting patterns.
Candidates use regional voting trends to map out their campaign strategy and go after the states with the most electoral votes.
The Senate confirmation process is as old as the Constitution itself, but the controversy surrounding presidential appointments did not really reach a peak until the hearings were first televised in the late 1960s.
Before agreeing to adopt the new Constitution, the founding fathers established the notion of checks and balances.
In the area of presidential appointments, the Constitution makes it clear that the president doesn't have the ability to make political appointments.
The president has the power to appoint ambassadors, cabinet-level officials, and federal judges.
The Senate must approve the presidential appointment by a majority vote after a hearing.
In the modern-day politics of the confirmation process, a president must make hundreds of lower-level appointments, mostly in the form of federal judges.
Cabinet members, ambassadors, and Supreme Court justices are some of the higher-level appointments.
Political scientists say that Senate confirmation of appointments in these categories created a perversion of the system.
Clarence Thomas was nominated to the Supreme Court by George Bush.
Hill testified that Thomas sexually harassed her when she worked for him.
The Democrats questioned the personal life of John Tower, who was nominated for the post of Secretary of Defense.
The Senate committee asked for confidential FBI files.
The Senate has used its constitutionally delegated power to approve presidential appointments as a means of airing debate regarding public policy issues throughout the 1980s and 1990s.
The irony is that the founding fathers never intended the confirmation process to impede a president's ability to make appointments.
The potential for dramatic public hearings is set up by the Constitution, whether it is the nomination of a Surgeon General, Defense Secretary, or Supreme Court justice.
The democratic process is hurt when the public sees that the Senate is abusing its power.
The Senate has the authority to appoint ambassadors, cabinet-level officials, and federal judges.
The Senate has the power to approve appointments after a committee hearing moves the appointment to the Senate where the nominee needs a majority vote to be confirmed.
There are two examples of the consequences of Senate opposition of presidential appointments.
As a result of the scrutiny of appointments, the president's ability to make appointments is impeded.
If the Senate denies a president's appointment, there is a perception that the public is abusing their power.
If people feel their privacy will be violated at the confirmation hearings, they will be hesitant to agree to public service.
Delays of presidential appointments are caused by politics.
The table shows how to calculate your AP exam score.
Determine the number of correct multiple-choice questions from Section 1.
There is no penalty for incorrect answers, just a positive score.
If you answered 45 questions correctly, your raw score would be 45.
You can either have your teacher score your answers based on the points allocated for each question, or you can self-score the free-response answers you wrote.
Weighted free-response raw score is calculated using the free-response formula.
If you add the Section 1 multiple-choice score to the Section 2 free-response score, your final AP score will be determined by the conversion chart.
How well you did on Model Exam 1 can be determined using the following table.
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