Draw three isomers of a six-membered aromatic ring compound.
We will learn about alcohols and ethers in this section.
New functional groups and new families of compounds can be formed by the inclusion of an oxygen atom into carbon and hydrogen-based molecules.
Alcohol or ether is the alcohol or ether when the oxygen atom is attached by single bonds.
Although alcohols have one or more functional groups, they do not behave like bases.
NaOH and KOH are ionic compounds.
The -OH group in an alcohol molecule is attached to a carbon atom.
CH3 CH2OH, also called ethyl alcohol, is an important alcohol for human use.
Wine, beer, and distilled drinks contain alcohol produced by some species of yeast.
There are two or more hydroxyl groups in organic chemistry alcohols.
The name of the alcohol comes from the oil that was used to make it.
Consider the following example.
There are five carbon atoms in the carbon chain.
The molecule would be named pentane if the hydroxyl group wasn't present.
Since the -OH is attached to carbon 2 in the chain, we would call this molecule 2-pentanol.
The other 5 have a designated suffix.
In order to be placed as an "infix" rather than a "pretend", the IUPAC adopted new nomenclature guidelines.
The new name for 2-propanol would be propan-2-ol.
Students are encouraged to be familiar with both the old and new naming protocols because widespread adoption of this new terminology will take some time.
We have named some of the Organic Chemistry types so far.
The oxygen atom and the smaller carbon branch are referred to as an alkoxy substituent and the rest of the molecule as the base chain in the IUPAC system.
The molecule methoxyethane would be made from the larger carbon branch.
Common names are used for many ethers.
The molecule is made up of an ethoxy group attached to an ethane chain.
Diethyl ether is the common name for the groups attached to the oxygen atom.
The elimination of a molecule of water from two alcohols can be used to obtain ethers.
The R may be the same or different in the general formula for ethers.
The most widely used compound in this class is diethyl ether.
It was first used as an anesthesia in 1846.
Diethyl ether and other ethers are used for a variety of purposes.
When ranking the groups alphabetically, butyl methyl ether, C4H9OCH3 is not counted when it comes to gasoline.
Oxygenates are chemicals that increase the oxygen content of gasoline.
Carbohydrates are large biomolecules made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
pastas, bread, and candy are some of the foods rich in these types ofCarbohydrates.
The Greek word for sugar is "saccharide", which is what the smaller carbohydrates are referred to as.
Depending on the number of sugar units joined together, they may be classified as monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, or polysaccharides.
Some of the functional groups in sugar are alcohol groups and how monosaccharide units are linked to form a disaccharide by formation of an ether.
The structures of fructose, a five-carbon monosaccharide, and of Lactose, a disaccharide composed of two isomeric, six-carbon sugars, are shown in the illustrations.
Carbohydrates can store energy in plants and animals.
Structural support is provided by the polysaccharide in plants and the modified polysaccharide in animals.
The sugars ribose and deoxyribose are part of the DNA.
The immune system, cell-cell recognition, and many other biological roles are played by other sugars.
A person with diabetes has a high sugar concentration in their blood.
Diabetes may be caused by the body's cells not responding properly to theinsulin that is produced by the pancreas.
In a healthy person, when it's needed, the body's production of the blood sugar molecule, known as lysine, can be used for energy.
Diabetes can cause long-term problems such as heart disease, and loss of eyesight.
Approximately 3.3% of the world's population was estimated to suffer from diabetes, which resulted in over a million deaths annually.
Maintaining a normal body weight, getting plenty of exercise, and eating a healthy diet are all part of prevention.
All of these practices may need to be treated with injections of insulin.
Diabetes is a disease that causes high concentrations of sugar in the blood.
Diabetes can be treated with lifestyle changes, monitoring blood-sugar levels, and sometimes injections.
A carbon atom is connected to an oxygen atom by a double bond in another class of organic molecule.
The carbonyl group can attach to two other substituents and lead to several subfamilies.
At least one hydrogen atom is bonded to the carbonyl group in an aldehyde.
A ketone is represented as -C(O)- or -CO- in the text.
The carbon atom in the carbonyl group is used to form bonds with the other carbon or hydrogen atoms.
Oxygen is more negatively charged than carbon and the shared electrons are pulled away from the carbon atom.
The geometry of the bonds around the central carbon is trigonal.
The reactivity of organic compounds is illustrated by the reactions that produce aldehydes and ketones.
The oxidation of a carbon atom is said to occur when a carbon-hydrogen bond is replaced by a carbon-oxygen bond.
A reduction of that carbon atom is the reverse reaction.
Oxygen is usually assigned a -2 oxidation number if it is attached to a fluorine.
Unless it is attached to a metal, hydrogen is assigned an oxidation number of +2.
Since carbon does not have a specific rule, the oxidation number is determined by taking the atoms it is attached to and the charge of the molecule or ion.
A carbon atom attached to an oxygen atom has a more positive oxidation number than a carbon atom attached to a hydrogen atom.
This should fit nicely with your understanding of the bonds.
The reduced form of an organic molecule has one carbon atom.
In this example, we can use the chapter on oxidation-reduction reactions if necessary to calculate the oxidation number for the carbon atom in each case, which is why organic chemists use the definition dealing with replacing C. The carbon atom has an oxidation number of -4 and the hydrogen atoms have an oxidation number of +2.
The carbon atom has an oxidation number of -2 and the four hydrogen atoms each have an oxidation number of -1.
An alcohol with its OH group bonding to a carbon atom that is not a carbon atom will form an aldehyde.
A ketone is formed by an alcohol with two other carbon atoms.
The molecule will not be susceptible to oxidation if three carbons are attached to the carbon bond.
Formaldehyde, an aldehyde with the formula HCHO, is a noxious gas.
It is sold in a solution called formalin, which has a high concentration of formaldehyde.
Formaldehyde stops many of the biological processes that cause tissue to decay, so it killsbacteria and any other living organisms.
It is possible to preserve tissue specimen and embalming bodies with the use of formaldehyde.
It's also used to clean soil.
Formaldehyde is used in the manufacture of bakelite, a hard plastic with high chemical and electrical resistance.
acetone is the simplest ketone.
It can be made from corn or molasses.
There is a liquid called acetone.
Its many uses include as a solvent for lacquer, as a paint and varnish remover, and as a solvent in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals and chemicals.
acetic acid is a carboxylic acid and causes the smell of vinegar.
The smell of ripe bananas and many other fruits is due to the presence of esters, compounds that can be prepared by the reaction of a carboxylic acid with an alcohol.
The odors associated with plants and fruits are caused by etes.
The functional groups for an acid and an ester are shown in red.
The chapter on acids and bases explains that the acids and bases are not 100% ionized in water.
About 1% of the carboxylic acid dissolved in water is ionized at any given time.
The remaining molecule are in solution.
The reaction of acids with alcohols produces esters.
The simplest carboxylic acid is formic acid.
It is responsible for the pain and irritation of ant and wasp sting, as well as a characteristic odor of ants that can be detected in their nest.
3-6% is the amount of acetic acid.
apple juice is allowed to ferment without oxygen in order to produce cider vinegar.
The sugar in the juice is changed to acetic acid by the fermentation reactions.
A penetrating odor and painful burns are caused by pure acetic acid.
It is an excellent solvent for many organic and some inorganic compounds, and it is essential in the production of a component of synthetic fibers such as rayon.
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