Religious disagreements in Massachusetts led to other colonies.
The minister Thomas Hooker established a settlement in 1636.
The system of government was modeled on that of Massachusetts with the exception that men did not have to be church members to vote.
The colony of New Haven was founded in 1638 by immigrants who wanted a closer connection between church and state.
The colony of Connecticut was formed in 1662 when Hartford and New Haven received a royal charter.
Anne Hutchinson was more threatening to the Puritan establishment because of her gender and because she attracted a large and influential following.
She and her husband arrived in Massachusetts in 1634 to join their minister, John Cotton, who had been kicked out of his pulpit in England.
A number of prominent merchants and public officials met with Hutchinson in her home to discuss religious issues.
Hutchinson believed that salvation was God's direct gift to the elect and could not be earned with good works, devotional practices, or other human effort.
This belief was shared by Puritans.
Hutchinson claimed that most of the ministers in Massachusetts were guilty of faulty preaching for distinguishing "saints" from the damned on the basis of activities such as church attendance and moral behavior rather than an inner state of grace.
In Massachusetts, where most Puritans found the idea of religious pluralism deeply troubling and church and state reinforced each other, both ministers and magistrates were intent on suppressing any views that challenged their own leadership.
Cotton and Hutchinson were accused of putting their own judgement above the teachings of the church.
She was put on trial for sedition in 1637.
Her position as a public woman made her defiance seem even more outrageous.
Hutchinson, a combative and articulate woman, debated interpretation of the Bible with her university-educated accusers.
During her trial, she held her own.
She violated Puritan doctrine when she spoke of divine revelations and sealed her fate.
The leaders of the colony felt that such a claim posed a threat to the very existence of churches.
Hutchinson and her followers were removed.
Hutchinson and most of her relatives perished during the Indian war and her family moved to Rhode Island and Westchester north of New York City.
The English settlement in New England spread well inland and up and down the Atlantic coast by the mid-seventeenth century.
Anne Hutchinson lived in New England for eight years and left a mark on the region's religious culture.
The Puritan belief in each individual's ability to interpret the Bible could easily lead to criticism of the religious and political establishment.
It would take a long time before religious toleration came to Massachusetts.
New England had to deal with the problem of relations with Indians along with other colonies.
100,000 were the native population of New England when the Puritans arrived.
The native population was quickly outnumbered by the colonists.
Roger Williams wanted to treat the Indians with justice.
Williams insisted that the king had no right to grant land already belonging to someone else.
Williams said that no town should be established before the site had been purchased.
Buying land instead of seizing it was one of the benefits of John Winthrop's beliefs.
He insisted that such purchases must carry with them an Indian agreement to submit to English authority and pay tribute to the colonists.
The Indians were both savagery and temptation to New England's leaders.
They looked like Catholics with their false gods and deceptive rituals.
They enjoyed freedom, but of the wrong kind--what Winthrop condemned as undisciplined "natural liberty" rather than the "moral liberty" of the civilized Christian.
Puritans worried that Indian society might be attractive to people who lacked moral fiber, because they might prefer a life of ease to hard work.
In 1642, the Connecticut General Court imposed a three year hard labor penalty on colonists who abandoned "godly society" to live with the Indians.
The publication of captivity narratives by those captured by Indians was encouraged by the leaders of New England.
Her book's main theme was her determination to return to Christian society and she acknowledged that she had been well treated and suffered not the least abuse or unchastity.
The Puritans did nothing in the first two decades of settlement to bring Christian faith to the Indians.
Indians were seen as an obstacle to be pushed aside.
Anne Hutchinson began holding religious meetings in her home in Massachusetts in 1634.
She attracted people who believed that most ministers weren't following Puritan theology.
She was put on trial for sedition in 1637.
She claimed that she was inspired by a revelation from God, a violation of Puritan beliefs.
The clash between established power and individual conscience can be seen in the examination of Hutchinson.
Mrs. Hutchinson, you are known to be a woman that has had a great share in the promoting and divulging of those opinions that are the cause of the peace of the commonwealth and the churches here, you are called here as one of those that have troubled the peace of the commonwealth
Those that are parties in this group were harbored and countenanced by John Windsor.
That's a matter of conscience, Sir.
If you keep your conscience, it must be kept for you.
The course is not to be suffered for.
This course is not helpful to the state.
It won't stand with the commonwealth that families should be neglected for so many people.
There is no rule of God for this.
We don't think anyone should have authority to set up any other exercises besides what is already set up.
Anne Hutchinson said that the Lord would let her see which was the clear ministry and which was the wrong.
I must commit myself to the Lord if you condemn me for speaking what I know to be truth.
Mrs. Hutchinson, the sentence of the court you hear is that you are banned from out of our jurisdiction as being a woman not fit for our society, and are to be imprisoned until the court sends you away.
The governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony describes two different definitions of liberty in his speech.
The authority of the magistrates and the liberty of the people are questions that have troubled the country.
There is a mistake about liberty in the country.
Our nature is corrupt and there is a twofold liberty, natural and civil.
The first is common with beasts and other creatures.
It is a liberty to do evil as well as to do good, as he stands in relation to man.
This liberty is incompatible with authority and can't be restrained by the most just authority.
The exercise and maintaining of this liberty makes men grow worse than brute beasts.
This is the enemy of truth and peace, the wild beast, which the Gods are bent against to restrain and subdue.
Civil or federal liberty is also called moral.
This liberty is the proper end and object of authority, and cannot exist without it; and it is a liberty to that only which is good, just, and honest.
The same kind of liberty that Christ made us free is maintained and exercised in a way that is subjection to authority.
The woman has a choice.
The church has the authority of Christ.
Powhatan was the paramount chief of the Pequot War Indians in Virginia.
The coastal Indian tribes wanted to forge alliances with the newcomers to increase their position against inland rivals.
Conflict with the region's Indians became unavoidable as the white population expanded.
The turning point in New England's fur trade came in 1637 when a powerful tribe killed a fur trader.
Those who tried to escape were killed when a force of Connecticut and Massachusetts soldiers surrounded the village and set it ablaze.
Over 500 people lost their lives in the massacre.
Most of the Pequots were sold into slavery by the end of the war.
Their name will be erased from the historical record because of the treaty that restored peace.
Indian allies help the colonial forces with bows and arrows.
The destruction of one of the region's most powerful Indian groups opened the Connecticut River valley to rapid white settlement but also persuaded other Indians that the newcomers possessed a power that could not be resisted.
Indian allies considered European military practices to be barbaric.
Some Puritans agreed.
The Pilgrim leader wrote that it was a fearful sight to see them frying in the fire.
The defeat of a barbaric nation by "the sword of the Lord" offered further proof that the Puritans were on a sacred mission and that Indians were not worthy of sharing New England with the church.
The leaders of the New England colonies believed that religion was the main reason for emigration.
Economic motives were important.
The Puritans came to America from East Anglia.
In the 1620s and 1630s, East Anglia, one of the most advanced areas of England, was affected by poor harvests and a decline in cloth trade.
Most of the people who left this area were weavers, tailors, or farmers.
They were well-off even though they were leaving a depressed region.
Most came from the middle ranks of society and paid for their family's passage.
They sought both religious liberty and economic advancement in New England, at least a "competency," the economic independence that came with secure landownership or craft status.
A man in the congregation yelled out, "Sir, you are mistaken, the main end of settlement was to honor God."
Puritans didn't have a problem with profit and piety as long as one didn't forget the needs of the larger community.
Success in one's calling is seen as a sign of divine grace.
Fishing and timber were used by New Englanders to make up for the lack of sugar or tobacco.
Family farms produce food for their own use and have a small surplus.
The Body of Liberties of 1641 made provision for slavery in the Bible Commonwealth, but there were very few slaves in New England.
Indentured servants were not as important to the economy as in the Chesapeake.
Women in the home and children in the fields were relied on by most households.
When sons could expect to receive land from their fathers, they were unmarried into their mid-twenties.
New England's expansion was driven by the desire for land among younger families and newcomers.
One resident proposed in 1651 that every adult man be given an equal parcel of land.
A group of young men received a grant from the General Court to establish their own town after the town meeting rejected the idea.
The Merchant Elite Per capita wealth in New England was less than that of the Chesapeake, but it was equally distributed.
A majority of New England families achieved the goal of owning their own land.
Economic development produced a measure of social inequality.
Indentured servants rarely received grants of land or church membership.
Most became wage earners.
New England had a growing role in the British empire.
In the 1640s, New England merchants shipped their goods to markets in Europe and Africa.
They engaged in a profitable trade with the West Indies, where they supplied slave plantations with fish, timber, and agricultural produce.
The Puritan policies of subordination of economic activity to the common good were challenged by a powerful class of merchants.
As early as the 1630s, when the General Court established limits on prices and wages--measures common in England--and gave a small group of merchants a monopoly on imports from Europe, others protested.
Anne Hutchinson's challenge to colonial authority was supported by merchants.
New Hampshire became the royal colony of New Hampshire after some people left Boston to establish a new town.
Others continued to fight for the right to conduct business as they pleased.
Massachusetts repealed many of its economic regulations by the 1640s.
The Puritans never abandoned the idea that economic activity should serve the general welfare, but Boston merchants soon came to exert a decisive influence in public affairs.
The Massachusetts Bay Colony actively promoted economic development by building roads and bridges, offering bounties to economic enterprises, and abandoning laws limiting prices.
The Puritan experiment would eventually lead to a merchant-dominated colonial government.
A portrait of the wife and daughter of a prominent Boston merchant and lawyer was painted in the 1670s.
Mrs. Freake wears pearls, a ring, and a dress to show her family's wealth.
Less than half of Boston's population was admitted to full church membership by 1650.
The religious status of the third generation forced Massachusetts churches to deal with the problem.
Many children of the elect never became full church members because they were unable to demonstrate their religious commitment or testify to a conversion experience.
New Englanders were faced with a difficult choice.
The size and social influence of the Congregational Church could be limited by strict standards of church admission.
They could make admission easier, which would keep the church connected to a larger part of the population, but would raise fears about a loss of religious purity.
The Half-Way Covenant of 1662 tried to address this problem by allowing for thebaptism and half-way membership for the grandchildren of those who arrived during the Great Migration.
In a compromise of Puritan beliefs, ancestry became the pathway to inclusion among the elect.
Church membership continued to decline.
In the 1670s, ministers castigating the people for selfishness, pride, and Sabbath violations, as well as a "great back-sliding" from the colony's original purposes.
The warnings were called "jeremiads" after the ancient Hebrew prophet, who warned of more punishment to come if New Englanders did not mend their ways.
Hard work and commercial success have always been central Puritan values.
The commercialization of New England was a fulfillment of the Puritan mission in America.
Protestants who were not members of the established Anglican Church.
The accounts written by colonists after their time in Indian captivity stress the captive's religious convictions.
One of New England's most powerful Indian groups was destroyed in an armed conflict in 1637.
A 1662 religious compromise allowed colonial New Englanders whose parents were not part of the Puritans to join the church.
England became entwined in political and religious conflict as English emigrants began to settle in North America, and ideas of liberty played a central role.
The definition of freedom at home and in early English North America was expanded by the struggle over English liberty in the first half of the 17th century.
By 1600, the traditional definition of "liberties" as a set of privileges confined to one or another social group still persisted, but alongside it had arisen the idea that certain "rights of Englishmen" applied to all within the kingdom.
The Great Charter of 1215 was where this tradition began.
The agreement between King John and a group of barons was supposed to end civil unrest in the area.
peasants working land owned by feudal lords and legally bound to provide labor and other services was a restricted group at the time.
Protection against arbitrary imprisonment and the seizure of one's property without due process of law are included in the liberties mentioned in the Magna Carta.
The barons gained the right to watch the king's conduct and even revolt if he violated their privileges.
The document came to be seen as an example of "English liberty", that the king was subject to the rule of law, and that everyone should be protected.
The right to face one's accuser, as well as the right to trial by jury, came to apply to all free subjects of the English crown, thanks to the common law.
As serfdom slowly disappeared, the number of Englishmen who were considered "freeborn" grew greatly.
When English immigrants began arriving in the New World, "freedom" played a small part in England's political debates.
The idea of "English freedom" was elevated by the political upheavals of that century.
The English Civil War of the 1640s and early 1650s was a battle for political supremacy between Parliament and the Stuart monarchs.
There were disagreements about how the Church of England should distance itself from Catholicism.
A debate over the powers of the king and Parliament led to a great expansion of the idea of English freedom.
The belief in freedom as the common heritage of all Englishmen helped to legitimize English colonization in the Western Hemisphere and to cast imperial wars against Catholic France and Spain as struggles between freedom and tyranny.
The leaders of the House of Commons accused the Stuart kings of endangering liberty by imposing taxes without parliamentary consent, imprisoning political foes, and leading the nation back toward Catholicism.
The forces of Parliament won the civil war in 1642.
In 1649, Charles I was beheaded, the monarchy was abolished, and England became a Commonwealth and Free State.
Oliver Cromwell ruled for almost a decade after the execution of the king.
Charles II assumed the throne after the monarchy was restored.
Between 1640 and 1660, the idea of freedom took on new meanings.
In 1649, the writer John Milton called London the mansion-house of liberty and called for freedom of speech and the press.
New religious sects sprang up, demanding the end of public financing and special privileges for the Anglican Church and religious toleration for all Protestants.
The first democratic political movement, the Levellers, proposed a written constitution, the Agreement of the People, which began by proclaiming "at how high a rate we value our just freedom," and went on to list inalienable rights.
At a time when "democracy" was seen as the equivalent of anarchy and disorder, the document proposed to abolish the monarchy and expand the right to vote.
"Any man that is born in England is the greatest he can be, because the poorer he lives in England, the less he can live as the greatest he can be," declared the Leveller Thomas Rainsborough.
Rainsborough was against slavery.
A glimpse of the modern definition of freedom was offered by the Levellers.
The Diggers wanted to give freedom and an economic underpinning through the common ownership of land.
The radical movements spawned by the English Civil War had been driven underground before the restoration of the monarchy.
English immigrants would carry some of the ideas of liberty that flourished during the 1640s and 1650s to America.
William and other Levellers sailed for Massachusetts even though their brother was killed in the Civil War.
These struggles, accompanied by vigorous discussions of the rights of freeborn Englishmen, inevitably reverberated in England's colonies, dividing them from one another and internally.
The Civil War of the 1640s was fought by most New Englanders.
Some returned to England to join the Parliamentary army or take up pulpits in order to create a godly commonwealth at home.
Puritan leaders were not comfortable with the idea of religious toleration for Protestants.
Roger Williams' charter for the Rhode Island colony was granted by the revolutionary Parliament.
During the Civil War, a number of Anne Hutchinson's followers became members of the Quakers.
The spirit of God dwelled within every individual, not just the elect, and that this "inner light," rather than the Bible or teachings of the clergy, offered the surest guidance in spiritual matters.
In Massachusetts, colonial officials punished the Quakers with whipping, fines, and banishment.
Mary Dyer, a former follower of Hutchinson, was hanged in 1659 and 1660.
Massachusetts has a reputation in England as a hot spot for religious persecution.
After the restoration of the monarchy in 1660, Charles II ordered the colony to recognize the liberty of conscience of all Protestants.
While hangings ceased, attempts to suppress the Quakers continued, as did attacks on Baptists, whose disdain for a learned ministry also seemed to threaten Puritan beliefs.
Care was a writer on politics.
His book was an example of how seventeenth-century identities rested on negative images of other nations.
It was widely reprinted in the colonies and the mother country.
The English government's constitution is not an arbitrary tyranny like that of the French Kings, or that of the Turkish Grand Seignior.
Not yet a Democracy or popular State, where all confusedly are hail fellows well met, but a most excellently mixt or qualified Monarchy, where the King is vested with large prerogatives sufficient to majesty support, and restrained only from power of doing himself and his people.
The will of the prince is the law in France and other nations.
In England, the law is both the measure and the bond of every subject's duty and allegiance, each man having a fixed fundamental right born with him as to the freedom of his person and property in his estate, which he cannot be deprived of, but either by his consent, or
An Englishman's liberty is a privilege not to be exempt from the law, but to be freed in person and estate from arbitrary violence and oppression.
Virginia sided with Charles I during the crisis in Maryland.
The leaders proclaimed Charles II king after his father's execution in 1649, but Oliver Cromwell's government brought the colony under control.
In the 1640s, a pro-Parliament force attacked those who were loyal to Charles I.
The Protestant planter class wanted to take control of the Catholic elite.
The Protestant majority of the assembly rejected the laws proposed by the proprietor and claimed the same power to impose taxes as the House of Commons in England.
The governor of the colony was a Protestant and he offered refuge to the Protestant Dissenters who were being harassed in Virginia because of their religious beliefs.
The principle of toleration that had prevailed from the beginning of the colony was institutionalized by the Act Concerning Religion.
All Christians were free to practice their religion.
The act punished those who denied the doctrine of the Holy Trinity, which did not establish religious liberty in a modern sense.
The doctor was arrested under the provisions.
The law was a milestone in the history of religious freedom.
During the 1650s, the Commonwealth government in London placed Maryland under the control of a Protestant council, which repealed the Toleration Act and forbade Catholics from openly practicing their religion.
Maryland's experiment in religious freedom took place in 1657.
Cromwell and the Empire Oliver Cromwell, who ruled England from 1649 until his death in 1658, undertook an aggressive policy of colonial expansion, the promotion of Protestantism, and commercial empowerment in the British Isles and the Western Hemisphere.
His army forcibly extended English control over Ireland, massacring civilians, banning the public practice of Catholicism, and seizing land owned by Catholics.
Jamaica, a valuable sugar island, was seized by England.
The first navigation act was passed in 1651, and it sought to challenge the Dutch hold on international commerce by limiting trade to English ships and ports.
Several English colonies existed along the Atlantic coast of North America by the middle of the 17th century.
They differed enormously in economic, political, and social structure when they were established as part of an ad hoc process.
Plantation societies based on unfree labor and settlements centered on small towns and family farms were some of the things the seeds were planted for.
Access to land and the right to worship were some of the freedoms residents of the colonies enjoyed.
Others were confined to unfree labor for a long time.
The next century would be a time of crisis and consolidation as the population expanded, social conflicts intensified, and Britain moved to exert greater control over its flourishing North American colonies.
The right to face one's accuser in court is one of the liberties that English people were entitled to.
The English king was subject to the rule of law because of his rights.
All Christian denominations in Maryland were granted free exercise of religion in 1649.
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King James I established a joint-stock enterprise in 1606.
The company wanted to spread Christianity in the New World as well as find ways to make a profit.
Henry VIII formed the state church of England after the Pope refused to cancel his marriage to Catherine of Aragon.
The first English child born in the New World, Virginia Dare, was part of an English expedition that left the Outer Banks in 1587.
A legal process divided large farm fields in England that were previously collectively owned by groups of peasants into smaller, individually owned plots.
Many peasants were evicted due to the enclosure movement.
A land-grant policy promised fifty acres to any colonist who could afford passage to Virginia, as well as fifty more for any accompanying servants.
The headright policy was adopted in other colonies as well.
The first elected assembly in America was established in Virginia in 1619.
Only wealthy people could vote.
One-quarter of the settlers population was wiped out by an unsuccessful uprising of Virginia Native Americans.
In colonial America, a widowed woman had the right to inherit a third of her husband's property.
The Massachusetts Bay Colony was founded in 1630 by an English religious group.
There was a large-scale migration of blacks from the South to the North during and after World War I.
Protestants who were not members of the established Anglican Church.
The accounts written by colonists after their time in Indian captivity stress the captive's religious convictions.
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