Making fun of people for their body shape or weight is common in North American culture.
It happens frequently in social media for women.
Show business is an industry that is prone to it.
Consider the actor Gabourey Sidibe.
Fisher stated in an interview that he is in a business where the only thing that matters is weight and appearance.
That is messed up.
It is not easy to ignore jokes about weight.
People's feelings can be hurt by fat shaming.
It can cause serious health problems.
A recent study found that women who believed they had negative qualities associated with being obese were more likely to have poor health.
The effect was true even if the person's body weight was taken into account.
There is a feeling that one is being discriminated against because of their weight.
There are two reasons why this effect may occur.
Overweight people might avoid physicians who lecture them about their body weight, and physicians might hold negative attitudes about overweight patients, attitudes that interfere with treatment.
The chapter looks at how health and well- being are connected to psychological states.
Fat Shaming suggests methods for success.
Benefits of a positive attitude on health and well- being are included in the final section.
The pressure to be thin has been spoken about by Carrie Fisher.
Most people think about their health in terms of their biology.
You may be surprised to learn that your behavior affects your health.
Complete the learning goal activities to maximize your learning.
Write your own explanations of bold and italic terms.
Provide a description of how your health could be explained by this model in order to apply it to your life.
Health is seen as the absence of disease by the traditional Western medical model.
People are passive recipients of disease according to this model.
Drugs are designed to return patients to health.
Health professionals should maintain control over what happens to patients because they know best.
Most health- care professionals take a more integrated approach to health and well- being.
Staying healthy, regaining health following illness, and achieving well- being throughout life are all dependent on attitudes and behaviors.
The individual is more active in this approach.
Four decades ago, this field was launched.
The importance of lifestyle factors to physical health was appreciated by psychologists, physicians, and other health professionals.
Health psychologists don't think of health as the absence of disease.
They apply their knowledge of psychological principles to promote health.
Most people died from infections before the twentieth century.
In the United States, people are more likely to die from heart disease, cancer, strokes, lung disease, and accidents than from Japan.
All of the causes of death are partially lived.
Their longevity is due to their lifestyle.
A combination of genetics and behavior is what poor nutrition, smoking, and alco are.
A field that integrates research on more than 3 percent of Americans meet all those criteria.
Most people struggle with the application of psychological issues if they are one of them.
In 2015 and 2016 life expectancy principles were put in place to promote health and well- being.
It is a positive state where you strive for optimal health and life satisfaction.
Research in health psychology helps explain why people engage in healthy lifestyles that shorten their lives and make them miserable.
A positive state in which you feel your best is a model of health that integrates the Well- being.
You need to strive for optimal health and life satisfaction to achieve this state.
Social factors can affect health and illness.
The area of health and well- being is growing.
The research methods of psychology are used to understand those relationships.
They study how social systems affect health.
You need to understand the model to answer this question.
This model shows how a combination of factors can result in health and illness.
The environments you find yourself in are influenced by your thoughts and actions.
Your thoughts and actions are affected by those environments.
A kind of continuous loop is what the result is.
Are you an anxious person?
You have different ways of dealing with high anxiety situations, such as before an exam, or when you are having relationship difficulties, or if you have financial worries.
Eating comfort foods such as mashed potatoes, macaroni and cheese, and ice cream calms you down.
If you eat too much, you will gain weight and eventually become overweight.
Extra weight can make exercise more difficult.
Your metabolism will be slowed down by that decrease.
You will gain more weight if your metabolism is slowed.
The circle would continue.
Obesity, eating disorders, sexually transmitted infections, smoking, and stress affect health in this chapter.
The interplay between biological, social, and psychological factors is always involved in such effects.
Complete the learning goal activities to maximize your learning.
Write your own explanations of bold and italic terms.
The causes and health effects of binge eating disorder can be compared to the causes and health effects of over eating.
Obesity is a major health problem.
Body mass index is the most common measure of Obesity.
Body mass index is the ratio of body weight to height.
You can find the chart in Try It Yourself.
The body mass index is far from perfect.
It doesn't account for age, sex, bone structure, or where body fat is kept.
If you have a lot of muscle and are athletic, you might have a high body mass index.
Excess weight can cause health problems for most people.
Understanding Obesity requires more than one approach.
The societal context that makes cheap, tasty, and high-calorie food readily available is something you have to examine.
Obesity is an ideal example of the model of health.
You should keep in mind the links between genetics, thoughts, feelings, and behaviors when you read about obese people.
The variables cycle through a continuous loop.
In recent years, Western nations have seen an increase in obese people.
In the United States, the rate of obese people has increased.
A ratio of body weight to height was used to measure obese people.
The numbers are higher for ethnic minorities.
Find the point at which your weight and height meet on the graph to see your body mass index category.
You are at greater risk for health problems if your body mass index is above or below the optimal range.
African American and Mexican American women are classified as obese.
The percentage of obese children has doubled since the 1960s.
A person with a body mass index over 40 is extreme obese.
Obesity is not a problem in the rest of the world.
There is great interest in understanding why people are gaining extremely obese among adults over age weight and what can be done to reverse this trend.
Rats were only given one type of food.
Rats gain more weight when they get variety in their diet.
It might seem obvious that one of the reasons for being obese is eating too much.
Scientists don't know why some people are able to control how much they eat.
People are believed to be lazy or unmotivated.
Obese people often try multiple diet and "cures" to lose weight, but they don't always lose it.
Most people who lose weight through diet and exercise regain it.
The individuals gain back more than they lose.
Think of a buffet table at a party or a hotel.
After a platter of different foods, you see plat ter.
You don't eat a lot of these foods at home, so you want to try them all.
You might have to eat more than your usual meal size if you try them all.
One of the factors in gaining weight is the availability of different types of food.
In studies with rats, scientists have seen this behavior.
Rats that normally maintain a steady body weight when eating one type of food eat huge amounts and become obese when presented with a variety of high- calorie foods, such as chocolate bars, crackers, and potato chips.
It is the same for humans.
When a variety of good- tasting foods are available, we eat more than when only one or two types of food are available.
When portions are larger, we eat more.
Overweight people show more activity in reward regions of the brain when they look at good- tasting foods than do people who are at an optimal weight.
The availability of a variety of high- calories foods, the large portions served in many restaurants, and individual differences in response to food cues explain the increase in Obesity in industrialized nations over the past few decades.
Body weight can be passed on.
Close friends of the same sex tend to be similar in their body weight.
If one friend is obese, the other is likely to be as well.
Studies show that the critical factor is not eating the same meals or cooking together.
The unstated agreement on acceptable body weight is what matters.
You learn that obese friends are normal.
This kind of communication might affect how you think when you eat.
Obesity tends to run in families when you go to a mall, a tourist attraction, or a place where families gather.
According to various family and adoption studies, half of the variability in body weight can be attributed to genetics.
During the 1980s, one of the best and largest studies was carried out in Denmark, which found that the child's body mass index was not related to their adoptive parents'.
Studies of twins show that the genetic control of body weight is stronger.
Twins with the same body weights are more likely to be raised together or apart.
The study found that adult twins were overfed by 1,000 calories a day for 100 days.
Most of the twins gained some weight, but there was great variability among pairs in how much they gained.
There was a striking similarity between how much weight the two twins gained and how much fat they kept.
Some people are more likely to be obese in environments that promote overfeeding.
You read about the fat shaming experienced by another's sense of what body weight Gabourey Sidibe and Carrie Fisher are, which is appropriate.
Friends often have a chapter.
It shows the stigma associated with similar body types.
Obese people are seen as less attractive, less smart, and less productive than their normal weight peers.
Obesity can cause psychological problems.
Depression, anxiety, and low self- esteem are linked to being overweight.
Human Obesity research is correlational.
We can't say that one factor causes the other.
People with low self- esteem are more likely to put on weight.
Some cultures don't stigmatize obese people.
Being obese is a sign of being a member of the upper class in some developing countries.
In developing countries, obese people are less likely to suffer from infectious diseases and are less likely to starve.
A status symbol, it may indicate that a person can afford to eat luxuriously.
Being obese is a source of personal pride in Pacific Island countries.
Half of the men and two-thirds of the women in the country were obese.
Food is plentiful in most industrialized cultures.
Being overweight is not associated with upper-class status because citizens of those countries take food for granted.
It is associated with lower status.
Fast food is often more expensive than fresh food in the United States.
If people have limited finances, they may be more likely to become overweight.
Very thin body types are preferred by the upper classes in Western cultures.
Think about the fashion industry.
The average woman in the United States is 55 pounds lighter than the models represent.
The average model is placed in the underweight range in the standard.
It is nearly impossible for most people to achieve such thinness.
Women report that they hold body weight ideals that are lower than average weight but also lower than what men find attractive.
Larger body shapes are more desirable in some places.
There is a way to lose weight permanently.
The thinness shown by these models in the United States is taken into account when determining body weight.
Consider two examples.
Several inmates at a Vermont prison for men were challenged to increase their body weight by 25 percent in 1966.
In six months, these inmates consumed more than 7,000 calories a day.
If each prisoner was eating an extra 3,500 calories a day, he would have gained 170 pounds over the course of six months.
Most inmates gained less than 40 pounds.
When they went back to normal eating, they lost the weight.
The people who did not lose the weight had family histories of being obese.
Researchers investigated the effects of semistarvation at the other end of the spectrum.
More than 100 men volunteered to take part in this study as an alternative to military service during World War II.
The participants lost 25 percent of their body weight after being forced to reduce their food intake.
The weight reduction was very difficult to accomplish.
It was difficult to lose more than 10 pounds.
They were anxious, depressed, and listless.
Sex and other activities were no longer of interest to them.
They were obsessed with eating.
Many of these outcomes are similar to eating disorders.
Maybe you or someone you know has tried to diet to lose weight, only to gain it back.
Dieting can be a vicious cycle.
The body responds to weight loss by slowing down metabolism and using less energy.
Some people who try to lose weight through diet and exercise end up gaining it back.
The graphic shows that social pressure to eat less calories makes the body think it is starving.
The person is forced to eat even more if they lose motivation to diet.
A yo- yo effect is when the person's weight goes down and then up again.
Review flashcards and saved quizzes
Getting your flashcards
You're all caught up!
Looks like there aren't any notifications for you to check up on. Come back when you see a red dot on the bell!