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30.6 The Wave Nature of Matter Causes Quantization
When a laser of the same type as that which exposed the hologram is passed through a transmission hologram, it creates real and virtual images.
The interference pattern is the same as the object that was used to expose it.
White light holograms on credit cards are reflection holograms and are more common.
White light holograms can appear blurry with rainbow edges due to the different patterns of light in different colors.
3-D images of human organs, as well as statues in museums and engineering studies of structures, are some of the types of 3-D information storage that can be done with holograms.
Dennis Gabor, who won the 1971 Nobel Prize in physics for his work, was the inventor of holograms.
The interference patterns of lasers are more pronounced.
It is possible to record multiple holograms on a single piece of film by changing the angle of the film for each image.
holograms that move as you walk by them are a kind of lensless movie.
holograms allow complete 3-D hologram displays of objects from a stack of images.
It's easy to store these images for future use.
High-resolution 3-D images of internal organs and tissues can be made with the use of an endoscope.
After visiting some of the applications of different aspects of atomic physics, we now return to the basic theory that was built upon the atom.
Einstein said it was important to keep asking the questions.
You know the answer.
The wave-like properties of electrons were later proposed.
In the next module, we will see that they can only exist if they interfere with each other and only certain orbits meet proper conditions.
After the initial work on the hydrogen atom, a decade was to pass before de Broglie proposed that matter has wave properties.
The wave-like properties of matter were confirmed by observations of electron interference.
There are only a few places where electron can exist.
A standing wave on a string is what an electron's wavelength must fit into when it is bound to an atom.
An electron can be allowed to interfere with itself.
Constructive interference isn't produced by all of the orbits.
The orbits are quantized.
Constructive interference can be obtained when an integral multiple of the electron's wavelength is equal to the circumference.
The wavelength of de broglie is here.
As stated earlier, this is the rule for allowed orbits.
It is the condition for constructive interference of an electron that we now know about.
The quantization of energy levels in bound systems is done by the wave nature of matter.
The electron can't spiral into the nucleus because it's possible in an atom.
It can't be closer to the nucleus.
The wave nature of matter gives atoms their sizes.
The third and fourth allowed circles have three and four wavelength in their circles.
A cloud of probability is consistent with Heisenberg's uncertainty principle because of the wave character of matter.
If you use a probe that has a small wavelength to get some information, you will knock the electron out of its path.
The location of the electron's position is determined by each measurement.
A cloud of probability can be seen in the figure, with each speck of the location determined by a single measurement.
There isn't a well-defined type of distribution.
Nature is different on a small scale than it is on a large scale.
The ground state of a hydrogen atom has a probability cloud.
The darkness of the cloud has an effect on the probability of finding the electron.
The electron can be very close to the nucleus, but it is not likely to be a great distance.
The wave nature of matter causes quantization in bound systems such as the atom.
When a particle is confined or bound to a small space, its allowed wavelengths are those which fit into that space.
A particle in a box model is free to move in a small space surrounded by barriers.
This is true in blackbody radiators as well as in atomic and molecular spectrum.
Depending on the size and complexity of the system, various atoms and molecules will have different sets of electron orbits.
When a system is large, such as a grain of sand, the tiny waves in it can fit in so many ways that it becomes impossible to see the states that are allowed.
The correspondence principle is satisfied.
As systems get larger, they look less grainy.
Unbound systems, such as an electron freed from an atom, do not have quantized energies since their wavelengths are not constrained to fit in a certain volume.
When waves spread out and interfere as they pass through a double slit, they are detected on a screen as tiny dots.
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