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15.3 Waxes and Triacylglycerols
The structures and functional groups of the two groups are compared.
The formula for a wax or triacylglycerol can be drawn.
Wax on the leaves and stems of plants helps prevent loss of water and damage from pests.
A waterproof coating is provided by the fur, feathers, and skin of animals.
honeycombs and carnauba wax from palm trees are used to give a protective coating to furniture, cars, and floors.
Candles and cosmetics are made from Jojoba wax.
Lanolin, a mixture of waxes obtained from wool, is used in hand and facial lotions to aid retention of water.
Waxes are made from long-chain alcohols and fatty acids.
The name stearic acid is given to glyceryl tristearate.
The compound is called tristearin.
Most naturally occurring triacylglycerols contain glycerol, which is usually found in two or three dif ferent fatty acids.
A mixture of triacylglycerol might be made from stearic acid, oleic acid, and palmitic acid.
The formula for glyceryl tripalmitoleate is called the Condensed Structural formula.
Draw the structural formulas for the two acids.
They use triacylglycerols to make creams and lotions.
The triacylglycerol contains three molecules of myristic acid.
The major form of energy storage for animals is triacylglycerols.
Plants, seeds, and nuts are high in calories and are eaten by animals.
The animal goes into sleep when the temperature drops.
The body temperature plummets and cellular activity and heart rate plummets.
Animals that live in extremely cold climates are able to sleep for up to 7 months.
A polar bear is the only source of energy during this time.
Olive oil and peanut oil have large amounts of oleic acid.
The oils from corn, cottonseed, safflower seed, and sunflower seed contain large amounts of saturated and monounsaturated fat, which makes them a type of polyunsaturated oil.
The saturated fat in animal fats is more than the saturated fat in vegetable oils.
The melting points of animal fats are higher than those of vegetable oils.
Palm oil and coconut oil contain a lot of saturated fat.
Half of the saturated fat in coconut oil is lauric acid, which has 12 carbon atoms instead of 18 carbon atoms found in the stearic acid of animal sources.
Coconut oil has a melting point that is higher than typical vegetable oils, but not as high as fats from animal sources that contain stearic acid.
The Try Practice Problems 15.25 percentage of unsaturated fatty acids in vegetable oils is higher than in animal fats.
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