11.3: Happiness and Self-Esteem: Science Confronts
If you answer "yes" to questions 1 and 3 and "no" to question 2, you will get a "dishonest" score on integrity tests.
The integrity tests predict employee theft at better-than-chance levels.
The validity of these tests for detecting dishonesty in the business world is often weak because they yield many false positives.
The polygraph may be biased against the innocent.
For most of the 20th century, psychologists dismissed happiness as a fluff topic better suited to self-help books and motivational seminars than to rigorous research.
Over the past few decades, a growing body of research has suggested that happiness may produce enduring psychological and physical benefits.
A study has tracked a group of nuns in Wisconsin for six decades.
The nuns kept daily diaries when they were young.
Nuns who dealt with love, joy, and hope outlived other nuns by an average of almost 10 years.
The findings are not conclusive.
Happiness may serve adaptive functions like all primary emotions.
The source is based on Duenwald.
75% of the solutions to problems may be novel.
When we're happy, we see more of the world and seek out more opportunities, like romantic partners we wouldn't have considered before.
Because of this tendency, happy people tend to have better social lives than other people.
Life is easier for those of us who are optimists.
The more hopeful language in a candidate's speeches is one of the best predictors of who will win a presidential election.
According to one recent estimate, Americans spend $2 billion a year on self-help books designed to make them happy; moreover, Amazon.com lists about 400,000 books in the self-help category.
We might assume that we have all the information we need to be happy.
Daniel Gilbert has observed that people have a lot of bad theories about happiness.
Pop psychology bubbles need to be burst to understand happiness.
Myth vs. happy is what makes us happy.
What makes us happy?
Life events don't determine happiness.
More than 200 students were screened by Ed Diener and Martin Seligman for their levels of happiness.
There are two interesting exceptions to this trend.
Daniel Kahneman and his co-conspirators tracked the moods of more than 900 women by asking them to record of their wealth compared with those around them.
Life circumstances were found by the researchers.
Second, spending money on other people tends to make us happier, because of the women's income and features of their job.
Making others happy is often the best route to our own happiness, even if their jobs included good benefits.
The elderly are happier than younger people and women's sleep quality is better.
We're familiar with the stereotype that the sad old man Finding 2: Money doesn't make us happy.
A lot of money can't talk to psychologists.
Buying long-term happiness tends to increase happiness with age.
When we're short of it, money is related to the happiness of men aged 65 and older.
A modest association does decrease happiness when people become quite old and have a salary of $75,000 per person.
Happiness drops between how wealthy we are and how happy we are.
In the last year of life when people die of natural causes, additional money probably doesn't make a difference.
It is possible that the correlation is related to a causality effect of unhappiness on health.
Most unhappy people decline health on unhappiness.
The effect seems to be due to elderly people's economic prosperity.
The bright side of life average level of life satisfaction has stayed remarkably constant.
The positive effect is accompanied by the same time period.
A key role in the processing of negative emotions is beyond money.
We may be less affected by unpleasant information as we age.
We forget about the high cost of living, high crime adjusted GNP, traffic congestion, and other things that come with living in a popular area.
A number of helpful clues can be found in research.
Maybe because exercise seems to be an anti-depressant.
Researchers studied 42 countries.
People who are married are more likely to be happy than people who are not married.
People with a lot of friends tend to be happier.
Some authors argue that friends should be taught.
People who graduate from college are happier.
People who are religious tend to spend their money on things that they want to own rather than things that they don't.
The relation between political affiliation and happiness is found in Boven & Gilovich.
We quickly become accus plex and poorly understood.
Conservatives tend to report more tomed to their possessions than liberals, both of whom report greater happi a lifetime.
Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi demonstrated that liberals have more positive words in their language and higher levels of happiness than conservatives.
The answer to who is happier is up for grabs because there is no one in which we're completely immersed in what we're doing.
People who exercise regularly tend to be happier and less depressed than people who don't.
We feel more control over our actions than people who don't.
There are significant differences in ings when interpreting most or all of these finds.
There are many exceptions to the trends when it comes to the associations between these variables and happiness.
The Danes were the world's champion of happiness.
The apparent boost in happiness from marriage lasts about two years.
Many of the findings derive from correlational research.
Happy people are more likely to be prone to flow experiences.
If research tells us anything about how to find happiness, it's that we're not going out of our way to find it.
The concept of flow implies that happiness comes from the sheer act of enjoying what we do best, whether it's our work, hobbies, or romantic partners.
The pursuit of the prize is what leads to happiness.
People are overjoyed after winning a lottery.
They are often not much happier a few months after winning the money.
Our forecasts are incorrect in one direction.
Tens of thousands of Americans wait in hourlong lines every month in the hopes of winning a multimillion-dollar lottery.
Immediately after hitting a big lottery prize, lottery winners' happiness shoots up.
By two months after their win, their happiness is back to normal, and not much higher than anyone else's.
Most people with paraplegia have returned to their baseline level of happiness a few months after their accident.
People who are blind are just as happy as people who can see.
People assume that they'd be profoundly distressed if they turned up HIV-positive before taking an HIV test.
Five weeks after discovering they're HIV-positive, people are happier than they expected to be.
People who discover they are HIV-negative are less happy than they expected to be.
We don't know how quickly we adjust to our baseline levels of happiness.
Our levels of happiness quickly adjust to our life situations, just as our running speeds quickly match the speed of a treadmill.
In the short term, we feel better when something good happens to us.
We return to emotional square one when we adapt to our positive life circumstances.
The hedonic treadmill hypothesis suggests that we bounce up and down in response to short-term life events.
After a few days or weeks, we return to the set point.
We have different happiness set points.
Our happiness set points are stable, but can sometimes shift over time.
Negative experiences seem to be especially true of this.
Getting divorced, widowed, or laid off from work can cause lasting increases in unhappiness that don't disappear completely.
There is a life lesson in this.
The main problem with pop psychology is low self-esteem.
I don't know the myths of self-esteem.
People with low self-esteem are more prone to depression and anxiety.
There is no evidence that low self-esteem is the root of unhappiness, despite what the popular psychology industry tells us.
It reduces enormously complex psychological phenomena, such as depression or aggres evaluation of our worth, to one cause.
Low self-esteem is not the sole cause of these problems.
The evidence linking self-esteem to life success is weak.
People with high self-esteem are more likely to do well in school than people with low self-esteem.
They're also more likely to abuse alcohol and drugs.
The story of aggression becomes more complex when it comes to low self-esteem.
There may be some truth to this view.
The photograph from the 2016 Rio high self-esteem is prone to aggression, especially when confronted with the Summer Olympics demon threats, as most evidence shows that a subset of people with Happiness is largely a matter of comparison.
The participants played a game in which they could retaliate against each other with loud noise.
It might have been a personality trait marked by extreme self-centeredness that they responded to by bombarding their opponents with louder noises.
In response to criticism, narcissism can increase risk aggression.
High-esteem students who are narcissistic are more likely to retaliate against teachers who give them low grades by punishing them with low evaluations course.
Young adolescents who have both self-esteem and narcissism are more likely to engage in bully behavior.
The data shows that high self-esteem is more of a risk factor for hostility than low self-esteem is.
It seems that narcissism is more than one thing.
There are two "flavors" of vulnerable and grandiose, according to research.
People with high levels of grandiose narcissism tend to brag about their accomplishments.
In feeling good contrast, people with high levels of vulnerable narcissism tend to be shy and preoccupied with themselves, as well as oversensitive to perceived minor slights.
There are intriguing implications for a variety of real-world behaviors, positive like myself, including leadership in the business and political worlds.
People who make good initial impressions are more likely to rise to positions of leadership and excel in job interviews.
Children who are narcissists tend to exaggerate their accomplishments, be over confident in their decisions, and place their self-esteem at risk.
It's possible that the charisma of a boss wears off and they are less liked than other bosses a few months later.
Presidential success and failure may be predicted by narcissism.
According to one study, U.S. presidents were rated by their biographers as having high levels of grandiose narcissism, but that was not related to their success.
They were more likely to have mistreated their subordinates than other presidents.
We may end up with more than we bargained for when we choose highly narcissistic leaders.
The answer is not agreed on by psychologists.
In tendencies to perceive ourselves more contrast, other researchers aren't persuaded and maintain that the evidence that narcissism favorably than others do levels are rising is unconvincing.
It's clear that we all need to keep a close eye on individuals with high levels of narcissism.
They can cause problems for us in everyday life.
On April 20, 1999, Eric Harris and Dylan had high self-esteem, but it has drawbacks.
Research shows that Klebold's murder of 12 students and a teacher at a high school gives him self-esteem, which in turn gives him more happiness in Colorado.
The murders were attributed to low greater initiative and persistence, that is, a willingness to attempt new challenges and self-esteem, which was released after their suicides.
These findings are correlational and may not be Correlation vs. Causation rior to their classmates.
diary entries that read "I am God" are more indicative of self-esteem.
Although overall self-esteem doesn't correlate highly with general school achievement, people's self-esteem regarding their mathematical ability does tend to be highly correlated with their achievement in math courses.
Low self-esteem individuals see themselves as less attractive than high self-esteem individuals.
They don't score higher than low-self-esteem individuals on measures of these characteristics.
High self-esteem individuals with a touch of healthy self-confidence may be able to thrive in interpersonal situations because of these illusions.
Celebrities are more self-centered than other people.
A slight positive bias helps us take healthy risks, like asking people out for dates or applying for jobs.
Research shows that romantic partners who hold unrealistically positive views of each other are more likely to endure in their relationships than are other partners.
When our positive biases become excessive, they may lead to psychological difficulties, including extreme self- centeredness, because these biases may prevent us from benefiting from constructive feedback.
A lot of contemporary psychology doesn't encourage adequately functioning people to achieve their full emotional potential.
Some authors argue that popular psychology has underestimated people's resilience in the face of stress.
The negative side of human nature has been the focus of psychology, according to other scholars.
This field helps people to find ways of enhancing positive emotions like happiness and fulfillment, as well as building psychologically healthy communities.
Positive psychology is dependent on character strengths and virtues outlined by Christopher and Martin.
Some of them, such as curiosity, love, and gratitude, are associated with long-term life satisfaction.
Positive psychologists are teaching students to incorporate their strengths and virtues into their daily lives.
Positive psychology interventions such as writing about one's positive experiences and expressing gratitude toward others tend to be helpful in enhancing moods and combatting depression, according to controlled studies.
Some psychologists are not convinced.
Positive psychology has been condemned as a "fad" due to the fact that its claims have outpaced the scientific evidence.
Making us more introspective is one of the upsides of negative vibes.
A study by Dr. Drew Pinsky and S. Mark Young found that celebrities scored 17 percent higher on a self-report measure of narcissism than did the general population.
The contestants scored the highest.
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