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11.3 Alkanes with Substituents
Write a balanced chemical equation for combustion after identifying the properties of alkanes.
The components of fuels that power our cars and oil that heat our homes are known as alkanes.
You may have used a mixture of hydrocarbons to make your skin softer.
Many of the alkanes have different uses because of their physical properties.
methane, ethane, propane, and butane are gases at room tempera.
They are useful in fuels and enhance appearance.
Liquid alkanes with 9 to 17 carbon atoms have higher boiling points and are found in jet fuels.
Motor oil is used to lubricate the internal components of engines.
Mineral oil is used as a lubricant and as a laxative.
Alkanes with 18 or more carbon atoms have a waxy substance at room temperature.
They are used in coating fruits and vegetables to keep them moist, prevent mold, and enhance appearance.
A semisolid mixture of hydrocarbons with more than 25 carbon atoms is called petrolatum.
Alkanes are insoluble in water.
Other alkanes can be caused by physical properties.
The density of alkanes is less than the density of water.
If there is an oil spill in the ocean, the alkanes in the oil, which do not mix with water, form a thin layer on the surface that spreads over a large area.
The largest oil spill in U.S. history was caused by an explosion on an oil-drilling rig in the Gulf of Mexico.
There can be considerable damage to beaches, shellfish, birds, and wildlife habitats when 10 million liters of oil is leaked.
Birds covered in oil need to be cleaned quickly because ingestion of the hydrocarbons can be fatal.
The carbon-carbon single bonds in alkanes make them the least reactive family of organic compounds.
Alkanes burn readily in oxygen to Butane in a portable burner under produce carbon dioxide, water, and energy.
Methane is the natural gas we use.
In cooking, camping, and torches butane is used.
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