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Chapter 6: Study Skills and Tips

- It takes time and planning to prepare for an AP exam.
- When you start the class, your preparation should begin in September.
- The content review chapters should match what you are covering in class if you are using this book during the year.
- You need to change your strategy if you are using this book a few weeks before the exam.
- As you work on the practice tests, the review material should help refresh your memory.
- You should have a plan.

- You need to set up a review schedule.

- In this chapter, we will look at study skills and tips to help you do well on the AP physics 1 exam.
- One of the most important things to remember is that most physical quantities have units associated with them.
- You may be asked questions about units in the multiple-choice section.
- All units must be included when using equations, making substitutions, and writing final answers in the free-response questions.

- Make sure you memorize all the units.
- They should be included with all calculations and final answers.

- The following two tables show a list of standard fundamental units as well as a list of some derived units.
- Make a note of each unit as you work through the different chapters.

- The essential aspects of algebra are reviewed in AP Physics 1.
- In physics, we discuss how quantities change using proportional relationships.
- Special relationships are used a lot.
- Referred to the, you can review them in more detail.
- You need to memorize these relationships.

- These relationships can be used to answer lab-based questions.
- There is a laboratory-based question on the exam.

- The direct relationship is usually represented by the formula y x kx.
- This is the equation of a straight line.
- The second law of motion, a-=F- netm, states that the acceleration of a body is proportional to the net force applied.

- The inverse relationship is usually represented by a formula.
- The equation is of a hyperbola.
- If a constant net force is applied to a body, the mass and acceleration are proportional to each other.
- inverse square law relationships include gravitation and static electrical forces.
- The forces are proportional to the distances between the two bodies.

- The equation of a parabola starts from the origin and is represented by the Squared (quadratic) relationship.

- You should know each of the relationships and their associated graphs as you review your material.

- Multiple-choice questions can be difficult.
- There are questions about units, graphs, proportional relationships, formula manipulation, and simple calculations.

- There is no penalty for wrong answers.
- You want to answer all the questions.
- If you can eliminate at least two answer choices, you can improve your chances of getting a correct answer.
- There are four answer choices for the Physics 1 exam.
- The "multiple-correct items" question has been added.
- The questions that ask you to mark two correct responses are introduced in the book.
- You must get both correct to get credit for these "choose two" question types.
- At the end of the multiple-choice section, there will be 45 single-select questions followed by 5 choose-two questions.

- Try to get to the essential aspects when you read a multiple-choice question.
- You have 90 minutes for this part, so don't waste a lot of time on questions.
- Eliminate two or three choices.
- approximations may be used if a formula is needed.
- The magnitude of the acceleration can be approximated as 10 m/s 2.
- If the answers make sense, you can use order of magnitude approximations.

- Look for distractors as you work on multiple-choice questions.
- These choices may look reasonable, but they are incorrect.
- If the question is expecting you to divide to get an answer, the distractor may be an answer obtained by multiplication.
- Linear reasoning does not apply to inverse squares and centripetal force.

- If you can't remember what you need to know, ask another similar question.
- When you read the question, try to link it to the general topic and then narrow it down to the specific area and the associated formula.
- You have to know which quantities are vectors and which quantities are scalars.

- The general topic area of physics is cross-indexed with each multiple-choice question in the practice tests to guide you on your review.
- You can go back to the topic area as you work on the tests and check your answers.
- At the start of your review, you may want to work on the multiple-choice questions that are not timed for the diagnostic and first practice tests.
- The last practice test is 90 minutes for the multiple-choice section and 90 minutes for the free-response section, and should be done a few days before the exam.

- For this section, you will have 90 minutes.
- Each question has a point allocation for each subsection.
- The curve determining your actual reported score is based on the raw score from the points you earned and changes from year to year.

- The skills of proportional and symbolic reasoning are emphasized in translation problems.
- There is an opportunity for you to demonstrate your ability to translate between multiple representations of the same problem.
- There is an expectation that you will be able to write coherent answers.
- You are expected to be able to read and write.
- There are design questions addressed in the next section.
- The three free-response question types are used in the book.

- You should start learning how the formulas are derived at the beginning of the year if you are not given specific formulas for some concepts.
- The formulas for projectile motion problems are easy to derive from the standard equations.
- If you begin reviewing a few weeks before the exam, you may want to make index cards of formulas to help memorize them.

- Before you start, you must carefully read the entire question.
- If you are going to solve the problem, you need to write down the general concept being used for it.
- You need to write down the equations you are using.

- You should show all of your work on Part II.
- All formulas, substitutions with units, and general concepts should be included.
- All diagrams should be labeled.

- You can communicate with the graders by showing them that you understand what they are asking.
- If you want to find the correct solution path, you may want to make a few sketches or write your thoughts down.
- When a written response is requested, make sure you answer the question in full sentences.

- Sometimes the question refers to a lab experiment that is done in class.
- You may be asked to make a graph.
- Make sure the graph is labeled correctly with axes labeled and units clearly marked, points plotted as accurately as possible, and best-fit lines or curves used.
- Don't connect the dots.
- The best-fit line is used to calculate slopes.
- When calculating slopes, make sure you include your units.
- You should always show your work.

- Make sure the arrowheads are visible when drawing.
- There is variation for angles.

- Since angles are measured in degrees, make sure your calculator is in the correct mode.
- Make sure you know how to input the numbers into your calculator if scientific notation is used.
- Each calculator is not the same.

- If you are asked to draw a free-body diagram, make sure you include the applied forces.
- Don't include component forces.
- Centripetal force should not be included on a free-body diagram.

- Write down the general concepts that you understand.

- Try to figure out if this problem is similar to one you have solved before.

- Make sure you know which information is relevant and which information is irrelevant to what is being asked.

- The question should be rephrased in your mind.
- Maybe the question is different from what you are used to.

- If one is not provided, draw a sketch of the situation.

- What is the best way to solve the problem?
- This can sometimes lead to a solution.

- If the solution is strictly algebraic manipulation, use numbers or estimations.

- If you move on to another problem, take a deep breath, close your eyes, and relax, the tension and anxiety may go away and allow you to continue.

- Don't leave anything out.
- You need to show all of your work in order to get credit.

- You have to respond to certain key words in a specific way.

- You can support your answer with words, equations, calculations, diagrams, or graphs.

- The final answer is provided with numerical and algebraic work.

- Although showing work is always desirable, it is not necessary for these questions.

- "Derive" is a method of manipulating a fundamental equation to the desired form.

- Without numerical scaling or specific data points, draw a graph that captures the key trend in the relationship.

- Specific data points should be placed on a scaled grid.
- Although trends may be superimposed on the graph, do not connect the dots.

- The College Board says that students should be familiar with seven science practices when taking the exam.
- When answering the experimental design questions, pay special attention to the practices that you don't know.

- When explaining a problem, use diagrams, graphs, and equations.

- Plug in only specific data at the end of the problem is appropriate use of mathematics.
- Do not use more significant digits in your answer than in the raw data.

- All proposals must be easy to understand.

- The key to planning and implementing data collection strategies is to keep other factors constant.

- When possible, graph the data and explicitly address whether or not the data are correlated.

- Understand concepts, scales, and representations.

- Take your existing knowledge of physics and use it in your design.

- Graphs that are linear in nature are easier to analyze than other types of graphs.
- Trends, slopes, intercepts, and correlations of experimental results are readily available.
- If you are asked to graph your data, linearizing it first will be beneficial.
- If the relationship is not linear to start, use a change of variable to make the relationship linear.

- This is not a linear relationship.

- The slope of the straight line will be 1/2 k when graphed and a line of best fit is applied.

- You can use a straightedge to draw a line with as many data points above it as you can below it.
- All subsequent calculations should be based on the slope and intercept of the best-line fit rather than on the original data.
- The idea is that the fit of the data is an average of the raw data and that the random variations in data have been smoothed out by the fit.
- For the same reason, always use the fitted line or curve when analyzing a graph of data.

- The following data was provided by another student.

- Square the given values for x to see the relationship between these variables.
- You have to scale the axis on your own based on the data.
- It is important that at least two-thirds of the graph space is used.

- The x and y axes have labels with units on them.

- You can also determine the uncertainty in derived quantities by respecting the number of significant digits in measured or recorded data.
- There are only 2 significant digits in the number if the circle's radius is measured and recorded as 3.5 cm.
- The area of the circle should be truncated from the calculator result to 2 significant digits.
- The area is 38 cm 2.
- The rest of the digits don't mean much as they don't imply a precision in the radius that we don't have.

- A percent error can be associated with a measurement.
- It is possible to write down the uncertainty in the radius explicitly as r is 4.5 +/- 0.05 cm.
- The true value is most likely between 4.55 cm and 4.45 cm.
- The percent error is 1.1%.

- Percent errors can be used to compare the relative precision of different measurements.
- The original measurement has an error of 1.1%, but the measurement that has a percent error of 1.6% is less precise.

- The student will not be expected to use significant digits and percentage error, calculate standard deviations, or carry out formal linear regressions because they should be able to use, reason, and support their answers by proper use of significant digits and percentage error.

- Points can be deducted for responses consisting of equations, extraneous information, or arguments not presented in the correct logical order.
- The paragraph shouldn't be too long and should consist of mostly prose.

- Unless otherwise stated, the frame of reference is assumed to be inertial.

- Unless otherwise stated, assume air resistance is negligible.

- Positive work is work done on a system.

- Positive charges would drift in the direction of the current.

- Unless otherwise stated, assume all batteries and meters are ideal.

- It takes practice and time to prepare for an exam.
- Managing your time is necessary for effective studying.
- Don't cram a few days before the exam.
- It's a good idea to work in a study group.
- You can use index cards to make your own flash cards of key concepts, units, and formulas.

- Try to work in a quiet environment when you are studying.
- It's not an effective use of your time to study late at night.
- The best way to learn physics is to solve problems.
- If you memorize the units and work through the chapter problems as you cover each topic in class, you will be more prepared for the exam.

- If you are using this book in the weeks before the exam, make sure you are familiar with most of the units, equations, and topics.
- The chapter review can be used for a quick overview and practice, or you can take the diagnostic test right away.
- You don't need to take the test under certain conditions.
- Review the concepts for the questions that you got wrong after you see how you do.
- You can use the end-of-chapter questions to test your knowledge of certain topics and then work on the remaining practice tests.

- Setting up a study schedule is important to success.
- The needs of each person are different.
- An effective plan includes the following schedule.

- There are two full-length practice tests with this book in addition to the diagnostic test.

- The College Board has identified seven strands of "Big Idea" that are the central organizing structure for the AP Physics 1 and AP Physics 2 exams.
- The tests try to reinforce the central ideas in ways that are appropriate to the subject matter.

- Mass and charge are some of the properties of objects and systems.

- When studying for the tests, use the Big Idea strands as a guide.
- The conceptual questions may appear on the exam.

- An isolated mass is being acted upon by outside forces.
- The object's internal structure is ignored.
- The object is defined by its mass and charge.
- It doesn't make sense to use thermal energy or the conserved quantities for a single object being analyzed.

- A system is made up of objects that can interact.
- The potential energy of relationship between interacting objects, the heat capacity of the parts, and the conserved quantities are useful concepts.

- Make sure you have a manageable study schedule in advance of the exam.

- Make sure you are familiar with the exam format and memorize all units.

- Multiple-choice questions don't have a penalty for wrong answers, so don't skip any.

- Write your answers clearly.
- Make sure you have a #2 pencil and bubble in your answers on multiple-choice questions.
- Short-answer questions should be written in full sentences.
- Use best-fit lines or curves to label graphs.

- The "Seven Big ideas" of physics are defined by the College Board as helpful clues as to what key concepts are emphasized on the exam.

- A single mass can be used to represent an object.
- It is best modeled as experiencing changes in speed and direction when exposed to external forces.

- A system is a group of objects that are isolated.

- Relax and do the practice tests.
- Review the concepts in the chapter questions.

- Before the exam, get a good night's sleep.

- On the day of the exam, bring all registration materials with you, as well as pens, pencils, calculators, extra batteries, and a metric ruler.

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