45.7 Behavioral Biology: Proximate and Ultimate Causes of Behavior
Succulent plants are the pioneer species in lava on Maui.
There is a classic example of secondary succession in oak and hickory forests.
Animals unable to flee the area will be killed by wildfires.
Ash is returned to the ground as a form of nutrition.
When areas are without life due to fires, the area will soon be ready for new life.
Before the fire, the vegetation was dominated by tall trees with access to sunlight.
Their height gave them access to sunlight while also shading the ground.
The trees are no longer dominant after the fire.
The first plants to grow back are usually annual plants followed by grasses and other pioneer species within a few years.
Changes in the environment brought on by the growth of the grasses and other species will lead to the emergence of shrubs along with small pine, oak, and hickory trees.
The organisms are called intermediate species.
Over the course of 150 years, the forest will reach its equilibrium point where species composition is not changing and resembles the community before the fire.
After a forest fire, the secondary succession is shown in an oak and hickory forest.
The idea that behaviors evolved as a result of natural selection is not new.
Several types of scientists have studied animal behavior.
ethology and comparative psychology are the most important for the study of behavioral biology.
Instinct is important because there is no risk of incorrect behavior being learned.
They are wired into the system.
Learning behaviors can be changed according to the environment.
The response to stimuli is what innate or instinctual behaviors rely on.
A doctor can use a rubber hammer to test the knee-jerk reaction.
The leg is extended at the knee when the nerves are stimulated.
A person who touches a hot stove pulls his or her hand away.
Humans have a great capacity to learn and still exhibit a variety of innate behaviors.
The increased or decreased speed of movement is called orthokinesis.
When exposed to high or low temperatures, woodlice increase their speed of movement.
The movement increases the chance that the insect spends less time in the unfavorable environment.
An increase in turning behaviors is called klinokinesis.
In association with orthokinesis, it is exhibited by E. coli which helps the organisms find a more hospitable environment.
The movement can be in response to light, chemical signals, or gravity and can be directed away from the source of the stimuli.
The unicellular protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila has an example of a positive chemotaxis.
At times it swims using its cilia and at other times it swims in a straight line.
As the organisms move closer to the source, the attracting chemotactic agent changes the turning frequencies.
During the breeding season of the three-spined stickleback, a small freshwale develops a red belly and shows aggressiveness to other males.
In laboratory experiments, researchers exposed such fish to objects that were not in their shape, but which were painted red on their lower halves.
The male sticklebacks responded aggressively to the objects.
Men who develop a bright red belly react strongly to objects that are not fish.
Salmon migrate to their spawning grounds when birds fly south for the winter.
The 2005 documentary March of the penguins followed the migration of emperor penguins through the ice to bring food back to their breeding site.
Wildebeests migrate over 1800 miles each year in search of rain-ripened grass.
Some species always migrate, even though migration is thought of as innate.
Animals can migrate or not.
The rest of the population does not migrate in some animals.
owls that live in the tundra may migrate in years when their food source is small, but not in years when rodents are plentiful.
Feeding behaviors that maximize energy gain and minimize energy expenditure are favored by the natural section.
The painted stork uses its long beak to search the bottom of a freshwater marshland for crabs and other food.
The stork has a long beak.
Even animals that live relatively solitary lives, with the exception of those that can reproduce asexually, must mate.
Mating involves one animal signaling another to mate.
There are several types of displays associated with mating.
Animals benefit from certain behaviors in populations that live in groups.
In selfish behavior, only the animal in question benefits; in altruistic behavior, one animal's actions benefit another animal; and cooperative behavior describes when both animals benefit.
Communication between population members is involved in all of these behaviors.
In the three-spined stickleback, the visual signal of a red region in the lower half of the fish signals males to become aggressive and signals females to mate.
Chemical, aural, visual, and touch are some of the signals.
These types of communication can be learned or instinctual.
A chemical signal is used to get a response from another person.
Pogues are used to get a specific behavior from the receiving individual.
Pheromones are used by many species to attract the opposite sex, to sound alarms, to mark food trails, and to elicit other, more complex behaviors.
Humans are thought to respond to axillary steroids.
A group of women were responsible for changing their menstrual cycles because of the chemicals they were exposed to.
The role of pheromones in human-to-human communication is not fully understood.
Songs are an example of aural signals that need to be heard.
Songs of birds are used to attract mates and identify the species.
Other well-known songs are those of whales, which can travel long distances underwater.
Dolphin species communicate with each other using a wide variety of vocalizations.
Male crickets use a specialized organ to attract a mate, repel other males, and announce a successful mating.
There are many displays in the animal kingdom.
The initial display by one member is followed by a response from the other.
If a proper response is not given, the display will not work and the ritual will be abandoned.
A dog bares its teeth when it wants another dog to back down.
These displays show the animal's fighting ability and willingness to fight.
The testing of certain hypotheses using game theory has led to the conclusion that some of these displays may overstate an animal's actual fighting ability and are used to bluff the opponent.
If it is successful more times than not, this type of interaction would be favored by natural selection.
The stork's display is to attract potential mates.
They are designed to lure a predator away from the nest.
This is an example of altruistic behavior, which benefits the young more than the individual performing the display, which is putting itself at risk.
Many animals communicate with each other through touch.
The Indian langur, an Old World monkey, has activities such as grooming, touching the shoulder or root of the tail, embracing, lip contact, and greeting ceremonies.
The great apes have similar behaviors.
The killdeer bird distracts its prey by faking a broken wing display in this video.
A behavior that lowers the fitness of the individual but increases the fitness of another individual is called altruistic.
There are many examples of such behaviors in the animal kingdom.
Worker bees don't have the ability to reproduce, but they keep the queen so she can keep the hive full of her offspring.
The sentry is put at risk by the rest of the colony, so the sentry keeps a standing guard.
Pack members not present during a hunt are brought meat by wolves and wild dogs.
Babies unrelated to them are taken care of by lems.
The behaviors seem to be altruistic, but the truth may not be so simple.
There is a lot of discussion about why altruistic behaviors exist.
Genetics of natural selection is one explanation for altruistic-type behaviors.
The Selfish Gene was written by Richard Dawkins and attempted to explain many seemingly altruistic behaviors from the viewpoint of the gene itself.
If an individual sacrifice benefits related individuals that share the same genes, it may seem like a selfish act.
This sacrifice is made by mammal parents to take care of their offspring.
Emperor penguins migrate to bring food back to their young.
Selfish gene theory is still discussed by scientists in related fields.
Those with less genetic identity than that shared by parent and offspring benefit from altruistic behavior.
The activities of social insects are examples.
Sterile workers in these societies take care of the queen because they are related to her, and as she has offspring, she is passing on genes from the workers.
It is of fitness benefit for the worker to maintain the queen without having to worry about passing on her genes.
Many altruistic behaviors seen in animals can be explained by this phenomenon.
These behaviors may not be defined as altruism because the actor is actually increasing its own fitness through its own offspring or through relatives that share genes with it.
This seems to defy the "selfish gene" explanation, as unrelated individuals may act altruistically to each other.
An example of this can be found in many monkey species where a monkey will present its back to another monkey to have it pick parasites from its fur.
The roles of the first and second monkeys are reversed after a certain amount of time.
The behavior is reciprocated.
If neither cooperated nor the other did not cooperate, their fitness is raised more than if they did.
The "giving" behavior of the actor is based on the expectation that it will be the "receiver" of the behavior in the future.
The result of living in the same social group is that people are more likely to encounter each other.
Evolutionary game theory has shown that many altruistic behaviors are not altruistic at all.
The definition of pure altruism is an action that benefits another without any benefit to oneself.
Most of the behaviors previously described don't seem to meet this definition, and game theorists are good at finding selfish components in them.
Some argue that the terms "selfish" and "altruistic" should not be used when discussing animal behavior, as they describe human behavior and may not be applicable to instinctual animal activity.
Natural selection favors heritable behaviors that improve the chances of passing on one's genes or a portion of one's genes, as long as those behaviors convey a fitness advantage.
If it doesn't lower the animal's fitness, these instinctual behaviors may be applied to other species.
Not all animals reproduce sexually, but many that do do have the same challenge: they need to find a suitable mate and often have to compete with other individuals to get one.
It takes a lot of energy to find, attract, and mate with a sex partner.
Intersexual selection is when female peacocks choose to mate with a male with the best plumage.
This type of selection leads to certain characteristics in the chosen sex that do not enhance survival, but are the most attractive to the opposite sex.
The winner of a sex selection battle is the one who is able to mate.
The selection of the healthiest, strongest, and most dominant individuals for mating is a result of many of these rituals.
Monogamous, polygynous, and polyandrous are three general mating systems that are seen in animal populations.
There are a number of theories that may explain this type of system.
The "mate-guarding hypothesis" states that males stay with the female to prevent other males from having sex with her.
This behavior is good for situations where mates are hard to find.
The "male-assistance hypothesis" states that males that help guard and rear their young will have more and healthier offspring.
In many bird populations, the male is also a major provider of parental care for the chick, which is why monogamy is observed.
The female interfered with the male's signaling to attract other mates in order to ensure that the male did not have other offspring that would compete with her own.
The single male is not capable of providing care to that many offspring so the female must be responsible for most of the parental care.
In resourced-based polygyny, males compete for territories with the best resources, and then mate with females that enter the territory, drawn to its resource richness.
It is at the cost of having no male help in caring for the offspring if the female is to marry a dominant, genetically fit male.
The yellow-rumped honeyguide is a bird that its males defend because the females feed on their wax.
The male will mate with the females when they approach the nest.
Harem structures are a type of polygynous system where certain males control the territory with resources.
The alpha male dominates the mating within the elephant seals.
A lek system is a third type of polygyny.
There is a communal courting area where several males perform elaborate displays for females, and the females choose their mate from this group.
The behavior is observed in several bird species.
Monogamous and polygynous systems are more common than these types of systems.
In pipefishes and seahorses, males receive the eggs from the female, fertilize them, protect them within a pouch, and give birth to the offspring.
The female is able to give eggs to males without having to carry the fertilized eggs.
One female mate with many males in the case of the seahorse and the pipefish.
The majority of the behaviors were innate or at least have an innate component.
The behaviors do not change in response to signals from the environment.
Learned behaviors allow an organisms to adapt to changes in the environment, even though they may have instinctive components.
Habituation and imprinting are important to the maturation process of young animals.
This is a form of non-associative learning where the stimuli are not associated with punishment or reward.
When threatened by a predator, prairie dogs usually sound an alarm call, but they become habituated to the sound of human footsteps, so they don't respond to it with an alarm call.
Habituation is related to the sound of human footsteps, as the animals still respond to the sounds of potential predator.
The first adult the ducks see is their mother.
ducklings are walking or swimming after their mothers This type of non-associative learning is very important in the maturation process of these animals as it encourages them to stay near their mother so they will be protected, greatly increasing their chances of survival.
If ducks see a human before they see their mother, they will follow the human in the same way they follow their mother.
The attachment of ducklings to their mother is an example of imprinting.
Biologists wear full crane costumes to keep the birds from seeing humans.
This is a video to learn more.
The behavioral response is changed by its consequences during operant conditioning.
The unconditioned response is the response to the original.
Ivan Pavlov's experiments with dogs are the most cited example of classical conditioning.
The salivation of dogs in response to seeing or smelling their food was the unconditioned response of the experiment.
The ringing of a bell was associated with the unconditioned response.
The bell was rung when the animal was given food.
This was repeated many times.
The dog learned to associate the ringing of the bell with food and to respond by drooling.
The ringing of the bell became a conditioned response.
Even though some scientists think that the unconditioned and conditioned responses are the same, Pavlov discovered that the saliva in the conditioned dogs was different from the unconditioned dog.
The dog is conditioned to associate the ringing of the bell with food.
It was thought by some scientists that this type of conditioning required multiple exposures, but it is now known that this is not necessary in all cases, and that some conditioning can be learned in a single pair experiment.
Behaviorism is a branch of psychological philosophy that says that all actions, thoughts, and emotions of living things are behaviors that can be treated by behavior modification and changes in the environment.
B.F. Skinner was the inventor of the Skinner box.
When Skinner was depressed, he put rats in his boxes with a lever that would give them food.
The rat initially pushed the lever by accident, but eventually it became associated with getting the food.
An example of operant conditioning is this type of learning.
The basis of most animal training is operant learning.
Positive or negative reinforcement can be a reward such as food or a punishment.
In this way, the animal is conditioned to associate a type of behavior with the punishment or reward and, over time, can be used to perform behaviors that they wouldn't have done in the wild.
Positive reinforcement operant conditioning involves rewarding dolphins with food.
Classical and operant conditioning are not efficient ways to learn.
Humans are able to learn by imitating the behavior of others and taking instructions.
Students are learning by reading this book.
Students can make mental images of objects or organisms and imagine changes to them as they read.
Remembering past experiences, touching physical objects, hearing sounds, and tasting food are some of the sensory inputs that enhance cognitive learning.
It is possible to understand conditioning in detail with cognitive learning.
In the reverse scenario, conditioning can't help someone learn.
Wolfgang Kohler worked with Chimpanzees on cognitive learning.
He showed the animals how to solve a puzzle by showing them how to think abstractly.
When a banana was hung in their cage too high for them to reach, some of the Chimpanzees were able to stack the boxes one on top of the other, climb on top of them, and get the banana.
They could see the result of stacking the boxes before they did it.
This type of learning is more versatile than conditioning.
primates are the most efficient in using cognitive learning.
H.C. Blodgett was the first to show cognitive skills in a mammal.
The animals were motivated to go through the maze because of a piece of food at the end.
The animals in Group I had food available to them each day on completion of the run, as shown in Figure 45.42.
Group II rats were not fed in the maze for the first six days, and then ran with food for several days after.
Group III rats had access to food every day.
The control rats, Group I, figured out how to run the maze in seven days.
Group III caught up to the control group when given a food reward after three days without food.
Group II didn't start to catch up to the control group until the day food was given, and it took two days longer to learn the maze, because they didn't have any reward to motivate them.
Group I found food at the end of each trial, group II did not find food for the first 6 days, and group III did not find food on the first three days.
Rats getting food earlier caught up to the control group.
The days when food rewards were added to the mazes were shown in the orange dots on the group II and III lines.
It is not obvious that this type of learning is different from conditioning.
The rats learned how to find their way through a series of right and left turns.
This was an early example of the power of cognitive learning and how it was not limited to humans.
E.O., a social insect researcher, popularized Sociobiology.
Stephen Jay Gould, a noted scientist, criticized the approach for ignoring the environmental effects on behavior.
This is an example of a debate about the role of genetics and environment in determining organisms' characteristics.
Sociobiology links genes with behaviors and is associated with the belief that all behaviors are hardwired into our genes.
Natural selection plays a role in retaining certain behaviors.
The application of principles to human behavior sparks this controversy.
All species have evolved a pattern of living, called a life population, in which they partition energy for growth and sex ratio.
Life tables can be used to calculate life maintenance and reproduction.
Individual population members have their expectancies evolve.
There is a correlation betweenfecundity and parental care.
Growth could have dire long-term effects on our environment.
There are different species living in the same area.
Populations with unlimited resources grow quickly.
Many organisms have developed defenses.
Populations follow a growth curve when resources become predator and herbivory.
As a result of evolution and population of a species, the warning coloration and mimicry will level off.
commensalism or mutualism can be formed by species.
Populations are regulated by keystone species.
Communities respond to density and environmental factors.
When a stable community history patterns are established, r-selected species, which have large structure, are established.
Many of the key features of the r- and K-selection theory are still used in demographically-based models of population dynamics.
There are behaviors that respond to stimuli.
The world's population is growing fast.
Rate is included in Instinctual behaviors.
Humans have increased the world's carrying capacity.
Through migration, agriculture, medical advances, and behaviors are learned.
The age structure of a population allows us to learn.
The seal population would decrease.
The seal population would not change even though the carrying capacity of seals would decrease.
The population size of a species.
The type I supported by the environment is called _____.
Some species have many offspring at the same time.
A forest fire is an example.
The giraffes are 6-7 years old.
Which type of country has the highest proportion?
The training of animals involves a lot of things.
The sacrifice of the life of an individual is called _____.
The first species to live on new land are called _____.
Multiple species with reproduction within a single breeding season is a type of mimicry.
The young are cared for by females.
Give an example of how density dependent and density independent factors might interact.
The Jaguar is a keystone species in the Amazon.
The mortality rate is calculated for each age interval.
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