McDougal Littel World History: Patterns and Interactions
Chapter 2: Early River Valley Civilizations
Chapter 2.1: City-States in Mesopotamia
Chapter 2.2: Pyramids on the Nile
Chapter 2.3: Planned Cities on the Indus
Chapter 2.4: River Dynasties in China
The Zhou had adopted much of the Shang culture.
The change in the dynasty did not bring sweeping cultural change.
The Zhou leaders declared that the final Shang king had been such a poor ruler that they gods had taken away the Shang’s ru;e and given it to the Zhou.
Mandate of Heaven: a ruler had divine approval
It became central to the Chinese view of government.
Historians describe the pattern of rise, decline, and replacement of dynasties as the dynastic cycle.
Feudalism: A political system in which nobles, or lords, are granted the use of lands that legally belong to the king.
In return for this land they owe loyalty and military service to the king and protection to the people who live on their estates.
The Zhou Dynasty produced many innovations
Roads and canals were built to stimulate trade and agriculture
Coined money was introduced, which further improved trade.
Blast furnaces that produced cast iron were developed.
The Zhou used to create iron weapons,especially dagger-axes and swords.
They also used it for common agricultural tools such as sickles,knives, and spades.
Iron tools made farm work easier and more productive.
771 B.C. nomads from the north and west sacked the Zhou capital and murdered the Zhou monarch