The state banks lost control of the federal funds.
It did not end the suffering caused by the depression.
President Van Buren and the Democrats were in trouble by 1840.
The hot potato of Texas was an issue.
William Henry Harrisonlured "Mother Bank," Andrew Jackson, and Martin Van Buren into a barrel of cider.
Harrison promised to reestablish the Bank of the United States after Jackson and Van Buren tried to destroy it.
Andrew Jackson, his political mentor, was appalled by the decision.
The Whigs thought they could win the presidency.
They passed over Henry Clay, Jackson's long-time foe, in favor of William Henry Harrison, who was the victor at the Battle of Tippecanoe.
Henry Clay was overcome with self- pity and lashed out at the Whigs who had shifted to Harrison.
He said his friends were not worth the powder and it would take to kill them.
John Tyler of Virginia was nominated as the Whigs' vice president.
Major issues were not taken a stand on by the Whigs.
The Whigs chose the apple cider and log cabin symbols to depict Harrison as a humble man sprung from the working poor in contrast to Van Buren.
Harrison won 234 electoral votes to 60 for Van Buren.
The Whigs promised a return to prosperity without explaining how it would happen.
It was time to change.
The turnout was remarkable.
Almost every state had dropped property qualifications for voting by this time, and more than 80 percent of white American men voted for the first time.
The nation that William Henry Harrison prepared to govern was vastly different from the one led by George Washington.
The United States had twenty four states and 13 million people.
The national population doubled every three years.
A surge in foreign demand for southern cotton and other American goods, along with substantial British investment in new American enterprises, helped fuel an economic boom and transportation revolution.
Jackson rode to his inauguration in a horse drawn carriage and left Washington, D.C. eight years later on a train, which symbolized the dramatic changes occurring in American life.
Andrew Jackson helped shape the American political landscape.
Henry Clay acknowledged that Jack son had swept over the government.
At the same time that working men were forming labor unions to increase their economic power and political clout, Jackson championed opportunities for the "common man" to play a greater role in the political arena.
The Union was saved by a combination of force and compromise.
Jackson's concept of "the people" was limited to a "white men's democracy," as it had been for all previous presidents.
The phenomenon of Andrew Jackson, the heroic symbol of the common man and the democratic ideal, continues to spark historical debate, as it did during his lifetime.
William P. Anderson, one of Jackson's friends and political supporters, wrote an open letter to the presidential candidate that was published in several news papers.
Jackson's besetting sins are ambition and the love of money.
You are both natural and constitutional.
If you become the enemy of a man, you will put him down, no matter what.
The criticism contained more than just a grain of truth.
Jackson was so convinced of the rightness and righteousness of his ideals that he was willing to defy constitutional limits on his authority when it suited his interests.
He was both the instrument of democracy and its enemy, protecting "the humble people" and the Union by expanding presidential authority in ways that the founders had never imagined.
Jackson said that the only justification for using governmental power was to ensure equal treatment for everyone.
His use of govern ment force was at times hypocritical.
He threatened to kill the B.U.S.
The tension in the American republic between democratic ideals and the exercise of presidential authority was symbolized by his inconsistent approach to executive power.
The Jacksonians wanted to expand economic opportunity for the poor and humble white men.
His views on limited government were not always reflected in his policies.
The relocation was blocked by the federal court system.
By 1840, most of the Seminoles and Cherokees had left the Southeast.
The state convention nullified the Force Bil after South Carolina accepted a compromise tariff put forth by Henry Clay.
Both sides claimed victory after the crisis was over.
Whigs won the election in 1840 because of the economic calamity.
The America of 1776 was very different from Andrew Jackson's America.
White men gained the vote, but political equality did not mean economic equality.
The Jacksonian era widened the gap between rich and poor.
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The painting depicts a plantation on the Mississippi River with slaves tending the cotton fields, a steamboat easing down the wide river, and the planter's family relaxing in the cool shade of their white column.
The pre-Civil War Old South was the most distinctive region of the United States.
The empire grew from a narrow band of settlements along the Atlantic coast to a larger empire with cotton.
After the rest of the nation embraced cities, immigrants, and factories, the southern states remained rural and agricultural.
The Old South was an important part of the nation's capitalist development.
After the War of 1812, cotton became the key raw material driving industrial growth and feeding the textile mills of Great Britain and New England, where wage workers toiling over newly invented machines fashioned it into thread, yarn, and clothing.
The price of cotton doubled in the first year after the war, and many bankers, merchants, and textile mill owners made loans to Southerners to buy more land and more slaves.
Insurance, financing, and shipping were provided by northerners.
The story of how southern cotton clothed the world, spurred the expansion of global capitalism, and transformed history was woven with the threads of tragedy.
The spread of slavery across the South and into Texas was accelerated by the cotton revolution.
British textile mills couldn't get enough of cotton and drove the industrial revolution.
Karl Marx said that without cotton you have no modern industry.
More than 70% of African American slaves were in the cotton business.
People have debated what made the Old South different from the rest of the nation.
The region's climate and geography are the focus of most arguments.
Tobacco, cot ton, rice, indigo, and sugarcane were profitable crops because of its warm, humid climate, which led to the plantation system of large commercial agriculture and its dependence upon enslaved labor.
Unlike the North, the South had few large cities, banks, and rail roads.
Most southern commerce was related to the distribution and sale of cotton.
With the cotton economy booming, investors focused on buying land and slaves; there was little reason to create an industrial sector.
An English visitor was told by a politician that they want no manufacturing, trading, or mechanical classes.
The South's ideal pursuit of happiness was profitable farming.
The planter elite valued education more for their sons than for the rest of the population.
The illiteracy rate in the South was three times higher than in the North.
The system of race-based slavery made the Old South unique.
It was central to their way of life.
A sense of social unity was created by the convenience of owning slaves.
Poor whites who resented the planters could still claim racial superiority over enslaved blacks.
The Old South had a higher percentage of native- born Americans than other parts of the country.
The main shipping routes from Britain and Europe took immigrants to northern port cities.
Immigrants couldn't afford to travel to the South because they were penniless.
European immigrants were not able to compete with slave labor.
There are two types of myths: truths and lies.
The idea of distinctiveness and superiority became central to Southerners' self- image.
Many Southerners cultivate a separate identity from the rest of the nation.
In defending their way of life, Southerners claimed that their region was superior.
The myth says that planters provided happy slaves with food, clothing, shelter, and security, in contrast to the North where bankers and factory owners treated their workers worse than slaves.
Slavery was said to benefit both slaves and owners in this version of the Old South.
The southern passion for guns, horsemanship, hunt ing, the military, and manly honor completed the self- gratifying image of the Old South.
Its defenders believed that it was a region of honest small farmers and well- mannered gentlemen who led leisurely lives of well- mannered graciousness in a world of white- columned mansions.
The myth of the Old South was much darker.
This line drawing of slaves dancing after a day of work in the cotton fields is an example of the "happy slave" myth, in which white Southernersglossed slavery as somehow cheerful and harmonious rather than oppressive.
The theme of violence ran deep in this version.
Thomas Jefferson was ambivalence about slavery, but the white planters were rarely like that.
The planters were mostly self-made men who had seized opportunities to become rich by planting and selling cotton and slaves.
Southern planters were portrayed as cunning capitalists who raped enslaved women, brutalized slaves, and lorded over their communities.
They sold slaves down the river to work in Louisiana sugar mil s and on rice plan tations.
Both descriptions of these myths are built upon half-truths and fierce prejudices, so they continue to fight for supremacy in the South.
South has always been defined by two souls, two hearts, and two minds competing for dominance.
The Old South, like the New South, was not a single culture but a diverse section with multiple interests and perspectives.
The Old South had different patterns of eco nomic development and different degrees of commitment to slavery.
In the first half of the 19th century, the Lower South became dependent on cotton production supported by slave labor.
The Lower South was dominated by slaves because they were the most efficient producers of cotton in the world.
The states of the Upper South had a mixture of large plantations and small family farms, where crops were grown mostly for household use.
In the mountains of Virginia, the western Carolinas, eastern Tennessee, and northern Georgia, the soil and climate were not suited to cotton or tobacco.
In the Border South, slav ery was slowly disappearing because cotton couldn't thrive there.
By 1860, 90 percent of Delaware's black population and half of Mary land's were free.
Slave owners in the Lower South invested a lot more in slavery.
The working and living conditions of enslaved workers were so brutal that they believed that only constant supervi sion, intimidation, and punishment would keep them under control.
Tobacco farming spread west after the Revolution as fields in Virginia and Maryland lost their fertility.
Rice was grown in the coastal areas of the Car olinas and Georgia, where fields could easily be flooded and drained by tidal rivers.
Sugarcane was an expensive crop to produce, requiring machinery to grind the cane to release the sugar syrup.
Sugar production was the focus of southern Louisiana during the early 19th century.
The South led the nation in livestock: hogs, horses, mules, and cattle.
Corn and pork were both on southern plates.
Corn was boiled on the cob in the early summer and ground into flour in the late summer.
Cornbread and hominy, as well as a "mush" or porridge made of whole- grain corn mixed with milk, were almost daily fare.
Cotton was the most profitable cash crop in the South during the first half of the 19th century, and its revenues spread far beyond the region.
40 percent of the revenue came from New York City, where cotton was bought, sold, and shipped abroad.
The national economy was powered by cotton.
The people who wore cotton, the planters who grew rich by it, the mill girls who sewed it, the merchants who sold it, and the politicians who fought over it were all shaped by cotton.
More than eighty of America's large est companies were in New England.
The Cotton Kingdom was the result of two important developments.
Women in India used to make cotton fabric using handlooms.
British inventors developed machinery to convert raw cotton into thread and cloth.
Great Britain was the world's first industrial nation because of the mechanical production of cotton, and the number of Brit textile mills grew so fast that owners couldn't get enough cotton fiber to meet their needs.
The first cotton gin was built by Eli Whitney and it was used to remove the sticky seeds from the cotton.
The two breakthrough helped create the world's largest industry and changed the South in the process.
India, Egypt, Brazil, and China joined the cotton revolution, but the American South was the driving force of cotton capitalism.
The Lower South was the leader in cotton production because of its warm climate.
The region's cheap, fertile land and profits to be made in growing cotton created a frenzied mobility in which people constantly searched for more opportunities.
The cotton belt moved south and west during the nineteenth century.
In 1820, Virginia, the Carolinas, and Georgia produced two thirds of the nation's cotton.
The Old Southwest states were the main producers of cot ton.
An acre of land in South Carolina produced 300 pounds of cotton, while an acre in Alabama or the Mississippi Delta produced 800 pounds.
It was the most profitable farmland in the world.
Most of the profits were performed by enslaved blacks because of the brutal efficiency of their overseers.
Slaves were used to remove trees and stumps from the muck in marshy areas near the Gulf coast.
One worker said that all but the hardest men could survive.
The formula for growing rich was simple: cheap land, cotton seed, and slaves driven to exhaustion by profit-seeking planters who viewed them as property to be bought and sold.
The population of Georgia, Alabama, and Missis sippi increased from about 300,000 to more than one million between 1812 and 1840.
Farm families in the Old Southwest were large.
A traveling minister reported that there is a cabin with ten or twelve children in it.
When the boys are eighteen and the girls are fourteen, you will see them in many cabins.
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