The advantage to this arrangement is the high pressure in the vessels.
The ridge within the ventricle diverts oxygen-rich blood through the system to the pulmocutaneous circuit.
Less mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood occurs when the ventricle is divided by a partial septum.
The most primitive animals have a four-chambered heart.
Crocodilians have a unique circulatory mechanism where the heart pumps blood from the lungs to the stomach and other organs during long periods of submergence.
One adaptation includes two main arteries that leave the same part of the heart, one taking blood to the lungs and the other to the stomach and other parts of the body.
There is a hole in the heart between the two ventricles, called the foramen of Panizza, which allows blood to move from one side of the heart to the other.
One of the most successful animal groups on the planet are crocodiles and alligators.
The warm-blooded lifestyle of mammals and birds requires the separation of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood, which improves the efficiency of double circulation.
The four-chambered heart of birds and mammals is different from the three-chambered heart.
convergent evolution is the independent evolution of a biological trait.
By the end of this section, you will be able to do the following: The blood is more than what's in the proteins.
The main component of blood is blood plasma and it contains a lot of things.
The immune response and the gases are carried by the cells.
The platelets make blood clot.
In hemolymph, interstitial fluid that surrounds cells is combined with blood.
In humans, the cellular components make up 45 percent of the blood.
Twenty percent of a person's fluid is blood and eight percent is weight.
Blood helps maintain equilibrium by stabilizing temperature and osmotic pressure.
Growth is supported by the distribution of hormones and the removal of waste.
The components of human blood are shown.
Red blood cells remove carbon dioxide from cells.
White blood cells are involved in the immune response.
Platelets prevent blood loss after an injury.
Red blood cells are small biconcave cells that do not contain a nucleus or mitochondria and are only 6-7 um in size in mammals.
Red blood cells are the nucleus of birds and non-avian reptiles.
The main job of thisProtein is to carry oxygen, but it also transports carbon dioxide.
Hemoglobin is packed into red blood cells at a rapid rate.
Each red blood cell carries one billion molecules of oxygen.
There are 25 trillion red blood cells in the five liters of blood in the human body, which can carry up to 25 sextillion (25 x 1021) molecules of oxygen in the body at any time.
In mammals, the lack of erythrocytes leaves more room for the hemoglobin molecule, and the lack of mitochondria prevents use of the oxygen for metabolism.
Some mammals have nucleated red blood cells, but only mammals have anucleated red blood cells.
The nucleated red blood cells have an advantage.
Red blood cells are able to oxidize without oxygen, making use of a primitive metabolic pathway to produce a substance called ATP and increase the efficiency of oxygen transport.
Some organisms don't use hemoglobin as a method of oxygen transport.
Invertebrates that use hemolymph instead of blood use different substances to bind to the oxygen.
The copper or iron is used to oxidize the oxygen.
There are a variety of respiratory pigments invertebrates.
There are four families of polychaete tubeworms with Chlorocruorin in them.
hemerythrin does not have a heme group and its oxygencarrying capacity is poor compared to hemoglobin.
Oxygen is delivered to the body and carbon dioxide is removed.
Hemoglobin is made up of a heme group that has iron, as well as two alpha chains and two beta chains.
The iron oxidizes from Fe2+ to Fe3+ when it reversibly associates with oxygen.
Hemocyanin is used in arthropods to deliver oxygen.
Hemolymph floats free in the hemolymph, unlike hemoglobin, which is carried in blood cells.
The blue-green color of the hemolymph is caused by copper binding the oxygen.
In annelids, such as the earthworm, hemerythrin carries oxygen.
hemerythrin has iron associated with it, but it does not contain heme.
The large surface area of red blood cells allows for rapid dispersal of oxygen and carbon dioxide.
Oxygen and carbon dioxide are taken in by the blood in the lungs.
Oxygen and carbon dioxide are released from the blood into the tissues.
Studies have shown that hemoglobin and NO are related.
NO relaxes the blood vessels and may help with gas exchange and the passage of red blood cells through narrow vessels.
It is possible to relax the blood vessels and increase the flow of oxygen through the body with NO, a heart medication for angina and heart attacks.
Red blood cells have a coating on their cells that is made of cholesterol and glycoproteins.
Red blood cells in humans vary in their surface glycoproteins and glycolipids, producing different blood types, such as A, B, and O.
Red blood cells have an average life span of 120 days, which is when they are broken down and recycled into white blood cells in the body.
One percent of the cells in blood are white blood cells.
The role of white blood cells is different than that of red blood cells because they are primarily involved in the immune response to identify and target foreign organisms.
White blood cells can live for hours or years.
They do not have hemoglobin.
Different types of white blood cells have different functions and are identified by their appearance after histologic staining.
Granulocytes are usually the first to respond to an injury.
B and T cells are involved in adaptive immune response.
Monocytes differentiate into cells that respond to infections or injuries.
The agranulocytes are named because of the lack of granules in their cytoplasm.
Some leukocytes become macrophages that can either stay at the same site or move through the bloodstream and gather at sites of infection or inflammation where they are attracted by chemical signals from foreign particles and damaged cells.
The primary cells of the immune system are Lymphocytes.
B cells killbacteria and inactivate their toxins.
They also produce something called an immune systemglobulin.
T cells attack many different types of cells.
T cells kill viruses by releasing toxins.
HIV poses significant management challenges due to the fact that it directly targets T cells.
Once inside the cell, HIV uses the T cell's own genetic machinery.
The HIV virus can be transmitted from the T cell to the macrophages.
For an extended period of time, the presence of HIV can be unrecognized.
Excess blood loss can be prevented if blood clot to heal wounds.
Small cell fragments called platelets (thrombocytes) are attracted to the wound site where they adhere by extending many projections and releasing their contents.
The contents interact with other coagulation factors and cause the blood to clot.
Problems with blood clotting can be caused by a deficiency of vitamins K and K. The clot stops the loss of blood for a number of days.
2000-3000 platelets are formed with between 150,000 and 400,000 platelets.
Each platelet is disc shaped.
They do not have a nucleus.
Thousands of fragments become platelets when the megakaryocyte breaks up.
The platelets collect at a wound site in conjunction with other clotting factors to form a clot that prevents blood loss and allows the wound to heal.
Blood is separated from the liquid component of it by spinning or centrifuging it at high speeds.
The blood cells and platelets are separated by force.
The upper liquid layer consists of 90 percent water and various substances required for maintaining the body's pH, osmotic load, and for protecting the body.
The blood contains a number of factors.
In interstitial fluid, the correct composition of key ion is essential for normal functioning of muscles and nerves.
The osmotic balance of the blood is helped by the components in the serum.
The antibodies in the serum are important for defense against infections.
Cholesterol is one of the substances that are transported in the serum along with other substances.
Human blood contains the most abundant albumin in the world.
About half of the blood is made up of albumin, which transports hormones and fatty acids and maintains osmotic pressures.
The immune system is dependent on the production ofglobin in the mucosal lining.
Red blood cells are made of glycoproteins and glycolipids.
Genetics determine the composition of these molecules.
There are 24 different blood groups with more than 100 different antigens on each red blood cell in humans.
The ABO blood group has two surface antigens, called A and B.
People with blood types A, B, B, and O all have the same antigen.
If the two are mixed, the agglutinougens in the blood will react with the A or B antigens.
When type A and type B blood are combined, agglutination of the blood occurs because of the antibodies in the blood that bind with the opposing antigen; this causes clot that coagulate in the kidneys.
All blood types can be given type O blood because it has no A or B antigens.