Conflict with local Indians was inevitable once it became clear that the English were interested in establishing a permanent colony and not a trading post.
The peace that began in 1614 ended abruptly in 1622 when Opechancanough led a surprise attack that wiped out one-quarter of Virginia's settlers.
Scores of Indians were massacred and their villages were devastated by the surviving 900 colonists.
The daily fear that led to the Indian assault was explained by a spokesman for the Virginia Company.
The Indians had forfeited their claim to the land by going to war.
Trade continued throughout the century despite Indians being a significant presence in Virginia.
The balance of power in the colony was changed by the unsuccessful Uprising of 1622.
The last rebellion led by Opechancanough was crushed after causing the deaths of 500 people.
Virginia forced a treaty on the surviving coastal Indians, who now numbered less than 2,000, that acknowledged their subordination to the government at Jamestown and required them to move to tribal reservations to the west and not enter areas of European settlement without permission.
The precedent already existed in Ireland.
Indian lands continued to be seized by settlers as they spread inland.
The destruction caused by the Uprising of 1622 was the final blow to the Virginia Company.
Virginia became the first royal colony when it surrendered its charter two years later.
The company or the settlers had failed to accomplish any of Virginia's goals.
When the king took control, the company's white population was only 1,200 and investors had not turned a profit.
For a long time, the government in London paid little attention to Virginia.
The local elite was in charge of the colony's development.
The elite was growing in wealth and power thanks to the crop introduced from the West Indies by John Rolfe.
Tobacco was considered harmful to the brain and dangerous to the lungs by the Tobacco Colony King James I.
The number of Europeans who enjoyed smoking increased.
Tobacco became Virginia's substitute for gold because of its growing mass market in Europe.
It enriched an emerging class of tobacco planters, as well as members of the colonial government who assigned good land to themselves.
Customs duties are taxes on tobacco that enter or leave the kingdom.
More than 200,000 pounds were being grown by 1624.
The crop doubled again by the 1680s after 40 years.
The spread of tobacco farming produced a dispersed society with few towns.
It inspired a rush for land and labor.
By the middle of the 17th century, a new influx of immigrants with ample financial resources--sons of merchants and English gentlemen-- had taken advantage of the headright system and governmental connections to acquire large estates along rivers.
They were the colony's social and political elite.
The demand for field labor increased as a result of the expansion of the tobacco industry.
Despite harsh conditions of work in the tobacco fields, a persistently high death rate, and laws mandating punishments from whipping to an extension of service for those who ran away or were unruly, the abundance of land continued to attract migrants.
Three-quarters of the English immigrants who entered the region in the 17th century were servants.
Virginia's white society became similar to that of England, with a wealthy landed gentry at the top, a group of small farmers, mostly former indentured servants, and an army of poor laborers.
The region's white population grew to nearly 90k by 1700.
Stable family life was missing from Women and the Family Virginia.
Several dozen "tobacco brides" who arrived in 1620 and 1621 for arranged marriages were promoted by the colony.
The demand for male servants to work in the tobacco fields led to men outnumbering women for most of the 17th century.
Most of the women who came to the region were indentured servants.
They didn't start forming families until their mid-twenties because they had to complete their terms of service before marrying.
A society with large numbers of single men, widows, and orphans was created because of the high death rate, equal ratio between the sexes, and late age of marriage for those who found partners that retarded population growth.
The authority of husbands and fathers in Virginia was weakened because of patriarchal ideals.
It was difficult for fathers to supervise the careers and marriages of their children because of their low life expectancy.
In the colonies, a married woman had certain rights before the law, including a claim to dower rights of one-third of her husband's property in the event that he died before she did.
The property passed to the husband's male heirs when the widow died.
Women rarely assumed roles in England because of the social conditions in the colonies.
Margaret was a lawyer in court and managed her own plantation when she arrived in the Chesapeake in 1638.
Because most women came to Virginia as indentured servants, they only had a life of hard labor and early death.
People were subjected to sexual abuse by their masters.
When their husbands died, married people found themselves in poverty.
Although it began under very different sponsorship and was much smaller than Virginia, the second colony, Maryland, followed a similar course of development.
Tobacco dominated the economy and society in Virginia.
Maryland's history was different in many ways.
In 1632, Maryland was established as a proprietary colony, a grant of land and governmental authority to a single individual.
Cecilius was the son of a favorite of King Charles I.
The charter gave the proprietor of the colony full, free, and absolute power, including control of trade and the right to initiate all legislation, with an elected assembly limited to approving or disapproving his proposals.
Maryland was imagined as a feudal domain by Calvert.
The land would be laid out in manors with the owners paying "quitrents" to the proprietor.
Ordinary people shouldn't meddle in governmental affairs, that's what Calvert disliked.
The charter guaranteed all privileges, franchises, and liberties of Englishmen.
The idea of a government limited by the law was included in these.
Maryland had more than its share of conflict during the 17th century.
The labor involved in processing tobacco was as much as caring for the plant.
After the crop has been harvest, slaves and female indentured servants work with it.
The instability in the colony was worsened by the fact that the younger sons of Catholic gentry who had few economic or political prospects in England were seen as a refuge by Calvert.
He hoped that Protestants and Catholics could live in harmony in Maryland.
A number of Catholic gentlemen and two priests were in the first group of 130 colonists.
The proprietors relatives were among the appointed officials and those who awarded the land grants.
The majority of the settlers were Protestants.
In Virginia, most came as indentured servants, but others took advantage of Maryland's generous headright system to acquire land.
The death rate in Virginia was very high.
Half of the marriages in one county lasted less than eight years before one partner died.
Half the children born in the colony did not live to adulthood, and 70 percent of male settlers died before they were fifty.
Maryland seems to have offered more opportunities for landownership than Virginia.
Fifty acres of land was included in freedom dues in Maryland.
The prospects for landless men diminished as tobacco planters engrossed the best land later in the century.
A land-grant policy promised fifty acres to any colonist who could afford passage to Virginia, as well as fifty more for any accompanying servants.
The headright policy was adopted in other colonies as well.
The first elected assembly in America was established in Virginia in 1619.
Only wealthy people could vote.
One-quarter of the settlers population was wiped out by an unsuccessful uprising of Virginia Native Americans.
In colonial America, a widowed woman had the right to inherit a third of her husband's property.
A swashbuckling soldier of fortune with rare powers of leadership and self-promotion was appointed to the resident council.
A different social order emerged in New England in the 17th century as Puritanism rose in Virginia and Maryland.
The religious movement known as "Puritanism" arose in England late in the 16th century.
Puritanism defined a set of religious principles and a view of how society should be organized.
Puritans differed on many issues.
The Church of England retained too many elements of Catholicism in its religious rituals.
The Catholic structure of religious authority was rejected by many.
They believed that the only way to determine modes of worship was for independent local congregations to choose clergymen.
Puritans shared many of the beliefs of the Church of England and the society as a whole, including a hatred of Catholicism and a pride in England's greatness.
They believed that neither the church nor the nation was living up to their ideals.
Puritans considered religious belief to be a complex and demanding matter and urged believers to seek the truth by reading the Bible and listening to sermons by educated ministers.
The sermon was the most important part of Puritan practice.
According to one estimate, the average Puritan listened to some 7,000 sermons over the course of a lifetime.
Puritans followed the ideas of John Calvin.
Calvin said that the world was divided between the elect and the damned.
The fate of one of the people destined to be saved had already been determined by God.
Prayers, good works, and offerings would not make a difference in his will.
There were no guarantees of salvation, but there were signs of God's grace.
There were certain signs of damnation.
Puritanism was not simply a set of ideas but a state of mind, a zealousness in pursuing the true faith that made it difficult for many who held differing religious views.
The Puritans who settled in the Colony of Pilgrims left the Church of England to form their own churches.
Most of the time, they wanted to purify the church from within.
Many Puritans decided to emigrate in the 1620s and 1630s as Charles I was moving toward a restoration of Catholic ceremonies and the Church of England dismissed Puritan ministers.
They left England because they feared that "Popish" practices had grown to such an intolerable height that the consciences of God's saints were at risk.
The Puritans blamed the wandering poor for many of England's social problems.
Puritans moved to New England to escape the religious and worldly corruptions of English society.
They would establish a "city set upon a hill," a Bible Commonwealth whose influence would flow back across the Atlantic and rescue England from godlessness and social decay.
Puritans came to America in search of liberty, especially the right to worship and govern themselves in a Christian manner.
The Puritans had freedom for spiritual reasons.
The opportunity to obey God's will through self-government and self-denial was implied.
Puritans thought there were too many examples of bad behavior in England.
In a speech to the Massachusetts legislature in 1645, the colony's governor, John Winthrop, distinguished between two types of liberty.
The false idea of freedom was adopted by the Irish, Indians, and bad Christians.
It was compatible with restrictions on speech, religion, and behavior.
True freedom depended on subjection to authority for both religious and secular reasons.
The Puritans believed that the elect had the right to establish churches and govern society, not that others could challenge their beliefs.
The Pilgrims were the first Puritans to arrive in America.
They fled to the Netherlands in 1608 because they believed that Satan was going to cause trouble in England.
They decided to emigrate to Virginia because their children were being corrupted by being drawn into the surrounding culture.
A group of English investors financed the expedition to establish a base for profitable trade.
They landed on Cape Cod, not in Virginia, but hundreds of miles to the north.
The colony was established by the 102 people who survived the journey.
The Pilgrim leaders drew up the Mayflower Compact, in which forty-one adult men agreed to obey "just and equal laws" enacted by representatives of their own choosing.
This was the first written government in the United States.
Among those who affixed their names were men who were not normally signatories to such documents.
When Giovanni da Verrazano explored the Atlantic coast of North America a century ago, he encountered thickly settled villages and saw the smoke of Indian bonfires.
By the time the Pilgrims landed, hundreds of European fishing vessels had operated off New England, landing to trade with Indians and bring epidemics.
The native population of the area had been decimated by the disease.
The site of an abandoned Indian village was the location of the new city of Plymouth.
The settlers arrived without food or farm animals.
Half of them died in the first winter.
In 1614, the English explorer Thomas Hunt kidnapped twenty Indians and brought them to Spain, where he planned to sell them as slaves.
He learned English after being rescued by a local priest.
He returned to Massachusetts in 1619 to find that his Patuxet had died of disease.
He was an interpreter for the Pilgrims, taught them how to fish, and helped forge an alliance with a local chief.
The first Thanksgiving in North America was celebrated in 1621 when the Pilgrims invited their Indian allies to a harvest feast.
The engraving shows the English explorer meeting the Native Americans.
In 1602 Gosnold established a small outpost on Cuttyhunk Island.
Before Pilgrims settled there, the region's Indians had a lot of experience with Europeans.
The Pilgrims wanted to establish a society based on the lives of early Christian saints.
Their government was based on the principle of consent and voting was not restricted to church members.
The land was divided among the settlers in 1627.
Massachusetts Bay became the main focus of the colony after 1691.
The Massachusetts Bay Company was founded in 1629 by a group of London merchants who wanted to trade with the Indians.
In 1629, the first five ships sailed from England, and by 1642, some 21,000 Puritans had migrated to Massachusetts.
In the 1630s, less than one-third of English emigration was due to this flow of population.
More English settlers arrived in Ireland, the Chesapeake, and the Caribbean.
After 1640, migration to New England stopped and more people left the region than arrived.
The basis for a stable and thriving society was established by the Great Migration.
New England was unique in many ways.
Most of the settlers arrived in Massachusetts in families.
They came for many reasons, including the desire to escape religious persecution, anxiety about the future of England, and the prospect of economic betterment.
The number of men and women were equally balanced, and they were older and more prosperous.
The population doubled every twenty-seven years because of the sex ratio.
By 1700 New England's white population was larger than that of both the West Indies and the Chesapeake.
The descendants of those who crossed the Atlantic were the majority.
It was difficult for patriarchal family patterns to take root in the Chesapeake until the end of the 17th century because of the imbalance between male and female migrants.
Puritans shared with the larger society a belief in male authority within the household as well as an adherence to the common-law tradition that limited married women's legal and economic rights.
The Puritans in America wanted the family structure of England to be the basis of social stability.
Control over the labor of one's family was essential to a man's economic success in a farming society without large numbers of slaves or servants.
The Puritans considered women to be spiritual equals of men and allowed them to become full church members.
The Puritan belief in the ability of believers to interpret the Bible opened the door for some women to claim positions of religious leadership.
The Puritan marriage was based on love and was legal.
The husband's authority was unquestioned within the household.
A man's position as head of his family was thought to be similar to God's authority in spiritual matters and the government's authority in the secular realm.
The power of fathers over their children and husbands over their wives was enforced by the magistracy.
For women who violated their husbands' sense of proper behavior, moderate physical "correction" was appropriate.
Women's lives were defined by their responsibilities as wives and mothers.
Untied adults seemed to be a danger to the social fabric, and the family was the foundation of strong communities.
The typical New England woman married at twenty-two and gave birth seven times.
More children survived infancy if they were in New England.
A woman's life was devoted to rearing her children.
Puritans were worried about individualism and lack of social unity.
The leaders of Massachusetts organized the colony in self-governing towns.
Groups of settlers received a land grant from the colony's government and then subdivided it, with residents awarded house lots in a central area and land on the outskirts for farming.
The town's founding fathers divided the land between the settlers and the sons of the town.
Each town had a church.
According to a law of 1647, each was required to establish a school since the ability to read the Bible was central to Puritan belief.
The first printing press in English America was established in Cambridge two years after Harvard College was established to train an educated ministry.
The Puritans had a religious and social vision.
Wishing to rule the colony without outside interference and to prevent non-Puritans from influencing decision making, the shareholders of the Massachusetts Bay Company emigrated to America, taking the charter with them and transforming a commercial document into a form of government.
The men who ruled the colony were chosen by the eight shareholders.
The General Court was formed in 1634 by a group of freemen who were elected by church members.
The company officers and elected deputies were divided into two houses.
The freemen of Massachusetts elected their governor, unlike Virginia and Maryland, where authority rested with a single proprietor.
Puritanism was based on the principle of consent.
The minister was elected by the members of the church.
No important church decision was made without the consent of the male members.
Local officials, delegates to the General Court, and the colonial governor were all elected.
Puritans were not believers in equality.
Church membership is a status that carries prestige and power.
To become a full member of a church, one had to demonstrate that they had experienced divine grace and could be considered a "visible saint," usually by testifying about a conversion experience.
Although male property holders generally chose local officials, voting in colony-wide elections was limited to men who had been accepted as full church members.
The percentage of the population that controlled the government went down as time went on.
Those within the circle of church membership were the ones who were entitled to Puritan democracy.
In the 17th century New England was a society in which prominent families were assigned the best land and seats in the church.
John Winthrop said that some must be rich and some poor, some high andEminent in power and dignity, and others mean and in subjection.
Man-made law and custom were part of God's plan.
In 1641, the General Court issued a Body of Liberties that outlined the rights and responsibilities of Massachusetts colonists.
There were separate lists of rights for freemen, women, children, and servants.
Slavery was allowed by the Body of Liberties.
The records of Massachusetts Bay show the first African slave.
Massachusetts did not allow ministers to hold office so as not to interfere with their spiritual responsibilities.
The church and state were interdependent.
Each town was required to have a tax to support the minister.
The state enforced religious devotion, even though there was no separate church courts.
The rights of free speech and assembly and equal protection of the law for all within the colony were affirmed by the Body of Liberties, but the laws of Massachusetts prescribed the death penalty for things like worshiping "any god, but the lord god."
Puritans believed that religious uniformity was important to social order.
They did not believe in religious toleration.
The liberty to practice this truth is religious liberty.
The Puritans wanted to complete the Reformation and spread it back to England.
These goals might be undermined by religious dissent.
The desire for religious uniformity clashed with the principle of autonomy.
The Massachusetts Bay Colony was founded in 1630 by an English religious group.
The Puritan leader and governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony decided to use the colony as a refuge for Puritans and as an instrument of building a "wilderness Zion" in America.
The Puritans insisted on reading the Bible.
Puritans would have found modern ideas of individualism, privacy, and personal freedom strange.
They thought that too much emphasis on self was dangerous to social harmony and community stability.
In New England, residents monitored one another's behavior and chastised or expelled those who violated communal rules.
The Puritan values did not have high tolerance of difference.
Almost from the founding of Massachusetts, there were differences of opinion about how to organize a Bible Commonwealth.
Puritanism focused on individual interpretation of the Bible and contained the seeds of its own division.
The first criticism of the existing order came from the young minister Roger Williams, who arrived in Massachusetts in 1631 and began to insist that the church and state be separated.
Williams believed that people should be allowed to follow their consciences wherever they went.
Puritans believed that the social fabric was held together by certain religious truths.
Any law-abiding citizen should be allowed to practice whatever religion he chooses.
The principle that genuine religious faith is voluntary was violated when the governmentmolested any Jew or Gentile for practicing worship.
Williams wanted to strengthen religion, not weaken it.
He said that the embrace of government corrupted the purity of Christian faith and caused people to start religious wars.
The minister's attack on the religious political establishment of Massachusetts was bad enough, but Williams added insult to injury by rejecting the belief that Puritans were on a divine mission to spread the true faith.
Williams denied that God had made any group special favorites.
The colony of Rhode Island was established by Williams and his followers after Massachusetts and Connecticut were abolished in 1636.
Rhode Island became a beacon of religious freedom because the right of individuals to participate in religious activities without governmental interference barely existed.
It had no established church, no religious qualifications for voting, and no requirement that citizens attend church.
Dissenters, who belonged to denominations other than the established church, were able to live there.
Rhode Island's government was more democratic.
Town meetings were held more frequently than elsewhere in New England because the assembly was elected twice a year.
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