We describe the methods psychologists use to gather information about the numerous problems and areas they research, describe the historical development and growth of psychol in Fairies ogy, and look at the different types of jobs that psychologists currently guidelines for the Psychological hold.
The case study in perspective in this chapter will allow us to examine its special topics in greater detail in subsequent chapters.
There are a lot of topics covered in these events.
Take the example of the survey research.
The situation poses questions that might be asked by psychologists.
In The evolutionary Perspective about the behavior of human beings and animals, psychologists seek to find the best answers to questions.
The cognitive perspective does not exclude the rich inner life that we all experience, such as dreams and cultural and diversity dreams.
Perspective psychology gives us the tools to answer questions about how we develop, The environmental, Population, what causes abnormal behavior patterns, and why people commit acts of aggression.
Before you can figure out why and how it happened, you need to be clear about what happened.
Chapter one can be very powerful.
At least 347 civilians were killed in Vietnam in 1968 by the soldiers who were directed by their commanding officer.
Jim Jones convinced his followers to poison their children in 1978.
Some techniques have been found to help with thinking critically.
Folk wisdom is a common alternative to these techniques.
Do you agree with the proverb?
General principles of behavior are included in the test of folk wisdom.
Before you leap, look at it.
People are lost when they hesitate.
It makes the heart grow fonder.
Two heads are better than one.
A penny saved is a penny earned.
Nothing was gained.
Efforts to explain events are presented in ways that can never be proved wrong.
The proverbs in List B are different from the ones in List A.
The exact opposite of every con ceivable event can be explained by folk wisdom.
Looking for insights and explanations through psychological research methods is the answer.
To gather useful information, to arrive at appropriate conclusions, and to develop and ask further questions are some of the things psychologists are trained to ask.
There are both right and wrong ways to ask questions.
Practice is needed to become a good psychological detective.
We're going back to England in 1920 to understand the need to practice psychological detective skills.
People who claim to be able to communicate with the dead during a seance.
The participants in a seance hold hands as they sit in a dark room.
During a seance, spirits are heard to speak through floating trumpets, cool breezes and touches are felt, and tables tip over even when no one has touched them.
The creator of the master detective was interested in spiritualism.
He wanted to communicate with his son, who was killed in World War I, so he started his inter est as a hobby.
The father believed he had spoken with his son on several occasions.
The reports of fairies being photographed seemed to confirm his belief in the existence of a spirit world, as he greeted the reports with enthusiasm.
Two young girls took photographs of fairies in a field.
The girls were young and didn't know how to use the equipment, so they were not at risk of fraud.
Many people believe that the photographs of fairies are real, and hundreds of cardboard cutouts they used to describe fairies they had seen, are genuine.
The photographs of fairies are not real.
She contacted fairies.
The statements of prominent public figures should not prevent us from asking our own questions.
It can cloud our observations, influ ence the questions we ask, determine the methods we use, and influence the information we gather.
He was convinced of the existence of a spiritual realm before he saw the photographs of the fairies.
If we have more than one explanation for an event, it would be better to make a claim.
All the proposed explanations explain the event or claim.
The simplest explanation is required by the law of parsimony.
There were two explanations for the fairies being seen by the girls.
The girls had seen the fairies.
The second explanation was that the girls had made up a story.
Belief in the existence of fairies involves many more complex assumptions than the view that the girls made a hoax.
One of the goals of the book is to help you become a better detective, able to ask good questions, collect useful information, and be aware of your own biases.
The process we discuss can be applied to the story of Doyle's fairies, shocks to headlines in news stories and advertisements, to this chapter's opening example of 450-volt administra tion, and to countless events you experience during the course of a typical day.
The reasoning we do in order to determine whether a claim is true is a cornerstone of psychology.
In this book, you will learn about many experiments in which psychologists put critical thinking into action to reach conclusions about behavior and experience.
We encourage you to use these sections as a way to test your reading and understanding.
Before you read further, be sure to write your answers down.
Whenever a person claims that they have a bias, always ask yourself if they have any in people you know or even yourself.
Sales people have a stake in convincing you to buy their products.
To prove their point, past buyers often offer the results of surveys, which show that they have been satisfied.
Car manufacturers mail surveys to recent buyers to determine their beliefs and levels of satisfaction.
The author of the claim should be evaluated because of personal bias.
We should not be blinded by authority figures.
Transferring credibility from one field to another is not easy.
The potential for bias among people who make a claim has been focused on.
The very assumptions we hold can create biases that can affect our views of claims, questions, or proposed solutions to a problem.
The influence of bias is not limited to the experts; we are all subject to its influence and must strive to recognize its sometimes subtle effects.
There are a number of seemingly simple questions in Table 1-2.
If your answers are correct, try to answer them.
You can compare your answers with those on page 39.
People cite personal experiences or anecdotes to support conclusions about behavior.
Products ranging from detergents to cars are often offered as proof of their quality.
Ask if the claim is justified when you come across it.
We have to question where the facts came from.
Several research methods that psychologists use to collect data for answering questions are discussed in this chapter.
The experimental method can provide the basis for cause-and-effect statements.
The research methods on which the claims in these news stories are based are not specified in most of these articles.
The process of scientific inquiry makes it difficult for us to evaluate the claims that we read in the print media.
The Internet has the same cautions.
Anyone can create a page on the internet.
There is no guarantee that the information is accurate.
Many students are afraid of statistics, but we use them all the time.
Don't hesitate to ask for numbers, but be sure you understand them.
Some claims are presented as an average.
You need to know which type is being presented and whether it is appropriate, as there are actually three types of averages.
We need to know if the findings could have been a result of chance.
The likelihood that the findings might have resulted from chance alone is usually reported by researchers.
You can't tell if a finding is significant by looking at the results, a statistical test needs to be performed.
The appendix covers such tests and other statistical topics.
It will improve your ability as a psychological detective if you read this material at this time.
Two variables are related to each other.
When the moon is full, the police report more crimes and emergency rooms treat more accident victims.
This belief persists despite the fact that research ers who have examined broader periods have failed to find a relation.
Consider the statements in the table.
In a group of four, did one of the factors cause the other?
Drugs and other article are some of the claims we encounter every day.
Even if there is no assign one of the four active ingredients, patients will respond to drug treatment.
If you believe that a drug will give you relief from the psychological detective, you may be able to reduce the symptoms.
When judging a drug's effectiveness, we need to know how many patients have improved because of the placebo effect with the group, so each student should evaluate the claim using his or her chosen drugs.
When we have comparative information, we can judge the effectiveness of a drug.
The guidelines do not mean that you will always arrive at an accurate understanding of any claim or proposed explanation.
When I'm in the shower, the phone rings.
People call at the wrong time.
It rains after I wash the car.
Different views of "the truth" may exist depending on the culture in which the experiment is conducted and the personal interpretation of the results.
The guidelines can help you avoid pitfalls that can lead to incorrect conclusions.
The methods psychologists use to answer research questions are examined in the next section.
The psychological detective uses these techniques.
There are at least two competing explanations for sonal testimonials.
Asking good questions might have led to arriv.
We need to know what might account for a particular claim.
The students had a dream the previous night.
50 students reported color in their dreams, what is the major problem with relying on folk wisdom?
Folk wisdom and proverbs are not always correct.
Folk wisdom is too vague.
Folk wisdom and proverbs do not provide insight into human contact or ability to behave.
This is likely to be a characteristic of biased tal y handicapped.
Researchers are objective at all times.
People who were previously unable observations are clouded by preconceptions by researchers.
To construct correct sentences, researchers need more stringent proof.
Researchers ask their own questions, regardless of what other people tell them.
They can't be explained about whether they are the greatest team in basketball.
The science of psychology is concerned with events like these.
We have noted that psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental proclivities.
Physical and psychological events have causes that can be uncovered to explain the phenomenon, according to theories all other sciences.
Scientists don't rely on hunches, but rather test hypotheses about personal experiences.
They use more research and observation to test the hypotheses.
naturalistic observations, case studies, and experiments are some of the research methods psychologists use.
As he developed his theory of personality, Sigmund Freud popularized this method.
A major advantage of the case study is that it allows researchers to gather a lot of very detailed information.
The goal of a case study is to understand the behavior of other people.
The case study is an excellent source of research ideas that can be explored with other methods.
One disadvantage of this method is that it may not apply to other people.
States may not tell us much about the behaviors and characteristics of men and women.
The president lives in unique circumstances and leads a life that few people can relate to.
They observed if children used seat belts in the study.
When psychologists make naturalistic observations, they observe that they can often provide suggestions as they occur, without altering the behaviors in any way.
Observers must not change the behaviors they observe.
The researcher can make naturalistic observations of the children at this day-care center by using a one-way mirror.
You are familiar with a reactive or obtrusive observation.
If the observer's scrutiny changed your behavior, try to get back to normal.
The psychologists who make naturalistic observations try to blend in with the sur roundings so that they are not noticed by the people being observed.
Their goal is to collect observations in a way that is not intrusive.
They can find a way to gather data without being present.
Retail companies can use data provided by his company to increase sales of their products.
Videotaping shoppers as they search, compare, and decide which products they will purchase is one of the methods he uses.
His team had cameras trained on the entrance to a large retail store.
There were some displays at the entrance that were very close to each other.
The same phenomenon was noticed time and time again by the team that monitored the videotapes.
A shopper was brushed by an incoming shopper.
Suddenly, the intent shopper was no longer interested in examining the merchandise, which was placed back on the rack, and the shopper moved on, in most cases not returning to the items.
The intrusion of others close to the shopper's backside seems so offensive that the shopper leaves the situation.
The "butt brush" phenomenon was noticed by both men and women.
The order to rearrange the merchandise and make butt brushes less likely to occur came down to the fact that Underhill told the company.
Imagine that your senior year in high school is a time when you are faced with a lot of decisions about going to college.
Before applying to the college of your choice, you probably took an entrance exam, such as the SAT or the American College Test.
Grade point averages are not caused by SAT orACT scores.
The graphs show the relation between SAT scores and first-year grade point average.
One student is represented by each dot in the scatterplot.
The location of the dot is determined by the student's SAT score and freshman grade point average.
It is not perfect, but there is some predictability here.
Between two variables they tend to occur together.
A correlation coefficients can have a value between two variables, no higher or lower.
Ignore the sign in front of the numbers for a moment.
A plus sign tells us that the values of one variable increase and the values of the other variable decrease.
Grades tend to be high if SAT scores are high.
The number of hours students study for an exam and their grades are correlated.
The values of the two variables tend to change as the values of one increase.
Students who study a lot should make fewer mistakes.
People who don't study a lot would make more mistakes.
The study time and errors on an exam are related.
The concept of correlation can be difficult for students.
We have created a hands on activity to help you test your understanding.
The assignment doesn't require calculation and you don't have to draw scatterplots.
Six pairs of variables will be presented to you.
The task is simple.
Determine if the pair of variables is likely to be a positive correlation, a negative correlation, or a zero correlation.
A professor found that the more time students spent studying chapter one, the higher their grade on the first quiz.
A reporter collected data from 100 motorists who agreed to have devices attached to their cars that tracked mileage and speed.
The reporter correlated average speed and miles per gallon at the end of the week.
There are a dozen models of new homes for sale.
The 1,200 square foot model sells for $85,000, the 1,500 square foot model sells for $105,000, and the 1,800 square foot model sells for $125,000.
500 people were asked to wear pedometers.
If the total steps in a month were related to actual weight, that's a research method.
She noticed that the lower the person's weight and the group of people who are less steps, the more the person weighed.
A researcher is interested in the relation of two variables, height and intelligence, in a sample of 200 adults.
The amount of alcohol in the blood is called BAC.
A group of social drinkers were asked to take part in a simple task after consuming various amounts of alcohol.
They were seated in front of a computer screen and had to click if they saw a particular letter.
If they missed the letter, their response was incorrect.
The researcher had the BAC and the total number of errors.
This is your first chance to work as a psychological detective.
In each chapter, we have psychological detective features to help you improve your critical thinking skills.
Before reading further, please pay attention to the sections and generate answers for the questions.
SAT scores and grade point average were two variables.
It's not surprising that these two variables are related.
A good psychological detective wants to understand this relation.
Make a list of factors that could be responsible for the relationship between these variables.
Some students with higher SAT scores may have been raised by families that emphasized enrichment and learning activities.
The formation and experiences of these families contributed to better study habits and higher SAT scores.
The bigger the correlation, the better the prediction.
Surveys can be used to collect large amounts of information.
They can be done in a variety of ways, from face-to-face interviews to written questions that are mailed to respondents.
More reliable, less expensive, and less time consuming are some of the advantages of Web-based interviews.
People may not necessarily tell the truth is a significant problem for survey research.
One of the authors of this text once conducted a telephone survey of the use of seat belts and found high numbers, which was not as common in the 1980s as it is today.
The few people who admitted to not using seat belts were quick to add that they insisted that their children wear seat belts.
The naturalistic observation of actual seat belt use revealed a lower use of seat belts than was revealed in the telephone survey.
To ask for clarification.
Call safety has been an issue in recent years.
40% use of cell phones while driving was assessed by the aaa Foundation.
The percent of respondents who said they would always answer a cell phone call was 20%.
When news anchor announce election winners based on information from polling researchers, only 2% of the vote is counted.
News organizations can make these predictions because their polling experts have identified key areas within the state that represent the entire population from the stand point of gender, ethnicity, and political preference; thus a small but representative seg ment of the population can be used to predict the way the entire population is voting
The traffic safety culture index is an excellent example of survey research.
The researchers used a nationally representative sample of 2,000 U.S. residents 16 years of age or older and conducted the survey via telephone in English or Spanish.
Up to eight attempts were made to reach a household.
When they got to a household, they randomly picked from among the household members 16 years old or older, asking who would have the next birthday.
Drunk driving is a very serious threat to personal safety, 85% said it was a very serious threat, and 9% said they had driven when they thought their alcohol level may have been close to or over the legal limit.
When conducting surveys, a representative sample is not the only important consideration.
To avoid bias, questions must be carefully worded.
You have created a mental set that suggests that professional athletes may be overpaid.
Your respondents might be biased to answer yes.
A complete qualitative researcher may want to describe a culture from the perspective of a cultural insider.
The research method involves people thinking about the topic.
Qualitative researchers are able to manipulate independent variables.
The goal of qualitative research is to develop a complete description of the behavior of interest, not to determine how they affect cally use logic.
Useful leads, strong data, and ex cellent descriptions can be provided by the research methods described so far.
Such statements can be provided by a variable that shows the outcome.
The most powerful research method has effects on an independent variable.
Crowding, frustration, and hot weather are possibilities for an experiment.
We need to be careful not to rely too much on hypotheses to guide the psychological research.
Research should be guided by observable findings, not just by independent variable predictions.
A behavior that a comparison group in an experiment doesn't receive shows the outcome of the experiment by revealing the effect of the independent able.
If we manipulated an independent variable that affects the probability of violence, hitting a person could be a dependent variable in the study of violence.
Clear and precise definitions for the independent and dependent variables are offered by researchers.
The value of the dependent variable exhibited by the control group and the experimental group would be different if our independent variable had an effect on violence.
Let's look at a classic experiment.
Children who observed an adult behaving aggressively would be more likely than children who observed an adult not acting aggressively.
One group observed an adult model while the other group did not.
An aggressive or non aggressive model was being observed by the indepen dent variable.
The dependent variable was the number of blows directed at the Bobo doll.
Children who observed an aggressive model engaged in more aggressive behavior than those who did not.
Modelling can play a part in causing children to act aggressively, but keep in mind the other factors of the experiment.
The type of participants, age of the models, sex of the models, measure of aggression, and so on may have influenced the results of the experiment.
Measures of aggression could have produced different results.
The need to replicate or repeat research is highlighted by these considerations, as well as the care that experimenters must take in conducting and interpreting their research.
Bandura and colleagues might have assigned all of the boys to the group that observed the aggressive model and all of the girls to the group that didn't observe the aggressive model.