The Confederacy's access to foreign goods and weapons would be cut off by the Federal navy's blockade of southern ports.
The plan called for the Union armies to push south along the crucial inland water routes in order to split the Confederacy.
The war plan of the Confederates was simple.
If the Union forces were stalemated and the war continued, the British or French could be persuaded to join the cause.
Lincoln might have to seek a negotiated settlement if a long war changed public sentiment in the North.
While armies were forming in the South, Confederate diplo mats were seeking military and financial assistance in London and Paris, and Confederate sympathizers in the North were urging an end to the Union's war effort.
Great Britain would do the same thing.
The British refused because they wanted to maintain trade with the United States.
Britain would support the South in order to get cotton.
The British were able to import cotton from India to maintain production.
Con federate diplomacy in Europe was more successful in purchasing military equipment than in gaining official recognition as an independent nation.
The money offered to those willing to serve is $677 to new recruits, $777 to veteran soldiers, and$15 to anyone who brought in a recruit.
In Illinois, the West Point graduate who had distinguished himself in the Mexican- American War rejoined the U.S. Army.
He was kicked out of the military seven years ago because of binge drinking.
He pursued several business ventures in Missouri and Illinois, all of which were failures.
He was forced to walk the streets of St. Louis in scruffy clothes, hawking fire wood out of a handcart.
Grant got renewed hope and purpose from the war.
Grant rejoined the army despite being married to a slave and his father threatening to shoot him if he ever visited the Confederacy.
The Confederates were committed to their cause.
The average age of soldiers in the Civil War was twenty-six, but the Union armies included more than 100,000 warriors younger than fifteen.
Many of the Union soldiers and sailors could not speak English.
50,000 Canadians and an equal number of Englishmen were included in the Union army.
There were 210,000 Irish men who served in the war.
Immigrants fought for many reasons, including a strong belief in the Union cause, cash bonuses, extra food, regular pay, and the need for a steady job.
The high proportion of immigrants in the Union army gave it an ethnic diversity that was not found in the Confederate ranks.
Because the Confederacy had a smaller male population, Jefferson Davis had to draft them.
White males between the ages of eighteen and thirty five were required to serve in the army for three years.
"From this time until the end of the war, a soldier was simply a machine, a conscript," wrote a Tennessee soldier.
controversial loopholes were included in the law.
A draftee could avoid service by paying a "substitute" who was not of draft age.
Key civilian workers, as well as planters with twenty or more slaves, were exempt from military service.
The men were forced into service after nearly a year.
With the war going badly, the U.S. government began to draft men.
Northerners found ways to avoid military service.
Exemptions were granted to selected federal and state office holders and others on medical or compassionate grounds if a draftee paid $300 to avoid service.
Most of the people who fought were volunteers.
Many people said they felt compelled by masculine duty, honor, and patriotism.
One Union volunteer enlisted because he felt a sense of duty to his country and himself.
The Texas private insisted that the Confederates were fighting for real and tangible things.
An Illinois officer felt that the Union soldiers were guided by a high and noble sentiment, but also by a sentiment to preserve the Union and end slavery.
Lyons Wakeman, the eldest of nine children in an upstate New York farm family, enlisted in the Union army in 1862.
Wakeman signed up for three years in exchange for a cash bonus.
Some of the pay went to help the family.
Wakeman doesn't fear the rebel bullets or the cannon.
In letters home from the war front, Private Wakeman asked about the family farm, what the new barn looked like, and how much it would cost to buy a farm on the Wisconsin prairie.
Wakemen did not die from wounds, but did die from dysentery after drinking from a stream contaminated with dead horses.
Lyons Wakeman served in the New York Volunteer Infantry in the Union Army.
Hundreds of women hid their genders to serve in the war.
Why she did that is a mystery.
The Confederates thought defeat would enslave southern whites.
The majority of Confederates couldn't imagine life without black slavery.
The Missis sippi lieutenant wrote that the country would be worthless without slave labor.
Many Union soldiers were fighting to preserve the Union rather than freeing the slaves, but a surprising number of Yankee soldiers insisted that winning the war meant ending slavery.
People were still ambivalence about their loyalties despite the patriotic fervor of 1861.
In 1863, Confederate Joseph Waddill admitted in his diary that he regretted his decision to leave.
Families were divided during the Civil War.
Mary Todd's youngest brother joined the army, as did three of her half- brothers and a brother- in- law.
Varina Davis was the First Lady of the Confederacy.
She was pro-Union while pro-slavery.
Kinfolk fought each other.
At the Battle of Seces sionville on James Island, South Carolina, Alex ander and James Campbel fought against each other.
The Confederate fort where Alexander's brother served was attacked by the Union forces.
James wrote a letter to his brother expressing his astonishment that Alexander was a part of the Union attackers.
The average Civil War soldier was five feet eight inches tall and weighed 142 pounds.
The War of the Union couldn't read or write.
Half of the Union soldiers were farmers.
The army camps had libraries, theatrical stages, churches and mascot pets.
Soldiers spent more time preparing for war in the summer than in the spring.
The first thing in the morning is dril.
Then drill again.
When not training, soldiers spent time in makeshift shelters or small tents, talking, reading, playing cards or checkers, singing songs, smok ing pipes, washing and mending clothes, and fighting swarms of insects.
Their diet consisted of baked bread crackers, salted meat, and coffee.
Even though they risked execution if caught, some soldiers on both sides were so overwhelmed by camp life that they deserted even though they risked execution.
Desertions and incidents of drunkenness, thievery, and insubordination increased each year.
There were different punishments.
Some deserters were killed.
Others were tied to a ball and chain and forced to bury dead horses or tend to animals.
Most soldiers on both sides saw their military experience as beneficial.
The soldiers share a bottle of whiskey while smoking their pipes.
Sullivan Ballou, a Rhode Island lawyer and legislator who enlisted in the Union army, wrote to his wife that he would have loved nothing more than to have stayed and seen their sons grow up, but his priority was serving his country.
Ballou was killed in the first Battle of Bull Run.
He had told his wife not to mourn him dead in his last letter.
The same sense of patriotism and honor was felt by Southerners.
The enthusiasm for both sides waned as the months went on.
In May of 1861, a farmer from upstate New York named Charles Biddlecom volunteered for the Union army.
Biddlecom had had enough by 1863.
He and three of his friends were forced to live in a small dog shelter because they were sick and alone.
Like many other soldiers and sailors, Biddlecom's moods and motives changed depending on the war's course.
During the War of 1812 and the Revolutionary War, enslaved African Americans took advantage of the confusion created by the war to run away, engage in sabotage, or otherwise pursue their own interests.
The most dramatic instance of rebellion occurred in Charleston Harbor.
As the sun rose, Small had a crew member hoist a white bed sheet to signal their surrender as he steered the ship toward the Union fleet.
The hero in the North was Smals.
He met with President Lincoln at the White House, toured northern cities, and became a ship pilot for the Union navy after campaigning for blacks to be allowed to serve in the army and navy.
He became a South Carolina legislator after the war.
During the Civil War, fighting spilled across the Mississippi River into the Great Plains and all the way to California.
The Confederate army tried to conquer the New Mexico territory in the late 19th century.
The western settlement slowed but did not stop.
There were new discoveries of gold and silver in eastern California.
Territorial status was gained by Dakota, Colorado, and Nevada in the 19th century.
Nevada and Montana gained statehood in the 19th century.
The most intense fighting west of the Mississippi occurred along the Kansas- Missouri border, where the disputes between pro- and anti- slavery settlers in the 1850s turned into brutal warfare.
William Quantril was the most prominent pro- Confederate leader in the area.
He and his followers fought under a black flag, meaning that they would kill anyone who surrendered.
They massacred 182 men and boys by the end of the day.
The Jayhawkers responded by burning houses and killing pro-Confederate prisoners.
India was caught up in the war.
In Oklahoma, 20,000 Native Americans allied with one side or the other and fought against each other.
African American slaves owned by Indians in the "Five Civilized Tribes" felt a bond with southern whites.
He was promoted to brigadier general at the end of the war and became the principal chief of the Confederate Cherokees.
The Confederacy was supported by the Choctaws and Chickasaws because of Oklahoma's proximity to Texas.
The Cherokees, Creeks, and Seminoles had different loyalties.
The Cherokees split into two, one going to the Union and the other to the South.
By the end of the war, one third of Cherokee women ended up widows.
The military did not happen east of the Appalachian Mountains before May 1862.
There were important battles in the West from the Appalachians to the Missis sippi River.
The Confederate army was defending Kentucky and Tennessee when General Grant made the first Union thrust.
He looked to his chief of staff, John A. Rawlins, a teetotaler, to keep him sober to combat his weakness for liquor.
When Grant was sober, he had only one equal as a military com mander: Robert E. Lee.
On February 6, 1862, the Union army captured Fort Henry on the east bank of the Tennessee River, and nearby Fort Donelson, perched on a hill overlooking the Cumberland River.
The Union took control of Nashville eight days later.
The first major Union victories sparked wild celebrations.
They helped keep Kentucky within the Union and gave the North access to the Cumberland and Tennessee rivers.
His nickname is "Unconditional Surrender" Grant.
He started smoking twenty cigars a day after being rushed with 10,000 cigars.
President Lincoln's joy with Grant's victories was offset by the death of his son Willie.
The Confederate forces regrouped in northern Mississippi near the Tennessee border after they were defeated in Kentucky and Tennessee.
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