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24.4 Organization and Diversity of Stems
English ivy uses roots to climb trees.
Orchids use their roots to capture water in the air and support their weight.
Plants with mycorrhizae are able to extract more water and minerals from the soil than those without a partner.
The relationship between the plant and the fungus is mutualistic because the plant gets water and minerals from the fungus.
Plants can't remove nitrogen from the air, but thebacteria within the nodules can.
The plant has a source of nitrogen and a source of carbohydrates.
The function of the Casparian strip is listed.
Take a look at the structures of a twig.
There are differences between a monocot stem and a herbaceous dicot.
Take into account the variations of stem diversity.
The main axis of a plant's shoot system is a stem.
It supports the plant's weight by carrying leaves and flowers.
Plants were able to move into habitats because of a stiff rising stem.
We can review the organization of a stem with the help of the anatomy of a twig.
The shoot tip is protected by leaves called bud scales.
When growth returns, bud scales fall off and leave a scar.
One year of growth is indicated by the bud-scale scar.
There are scars on leaves that have dropped.
The axillary buds that give rise to branches are also found here.
The major parts of a stem are illustrated by a twig.
The apical meristem at the shoot tip primordia can be seen as seasonal growth returns.
The locations of the nodes are marked by the leaf primordia.
Internodes increase in length as a stem grows.
The shoot apical meristem is in a terminal bud.
The shoot apical meristem gives rise to the primary meristems: Protoderm, ground, pith, and cortex.
Differentiation continues as some cells become the first elements of the xylem.
In this section, we will discuss the differences between mature vascular bundles and the meristem called Vascular cambium.
The skin of the stems is covered with a waxy cuticle to prevent water loss.
The xylem and phloem are found on these stems.
The xylem and phloem are usually found in the inside of the stem.
bamboo is becoming a valuable crop because of its resilience, amazing rate of growth, and ability to grow in a variety of climates.
bamboo can grow up to a foot a day and can reach their full height within a year in the right conditions.
A variety of bamboo can be found from 1 foot to over 100 feet.
There are over 1,400 species of bamboo.
The majority of the 900 can be found in tropical climates.
bamboo is native to the eastern and southeastern United States.
Most bamboo is grown in China.
Bamboo can be used as a building material, toilet paper, commercial food product, and clothing material.
It can be processed into roofing material, flooring, and support beams, as well as a variety of other construction materials.
The stalks can be used as support columns.
It can be used to replace steel reinforcing rods that are used in concrete-style construction.
Oak is three times harder than bamboo.
bamboo has a variety of uses in the kitchen.
The shoots are used in Asian dishes as a vegetable.
Shoots can be eaten raw or boiled.
In China, bamboo is used to make alcoholic drinks, and other Asian countries make bamboo soups, pancakes, and broths.
The hollow bamboo stalks can be used to cook rice and soups, giving them a subtle but distinctive taste.
Modification of bamboo into cooking and eating utensils is another use.
bamboo is being used to make clothing products.
The clothing made of bamboo is light and soft.
Bamboo is ideal to wear during exercise because of its ability to keep the skin dry.
Several lines of baby clothing are made from bamboo.
One of the most eco-friendly crops is bamboo.
It requires less chemicals to grow.
It removes more greenhouse gases and produces more oxygen than a stand of trees.
Harvesting can be done from the second to the seventh year of growth.
A bamboo stand can be regenerated after yearly harvesting.
The bamboo-goods industry started increasing in popularity in the United States in the mid 1990s and is now a billion dollar industry.
bamboo is quickly becoming an ideal natural product due to itsVersatility, hardy, and ease of growing, as well as a greater awareness of environmental issues.
Building materials, food, and clothing are some of the uses.
There is a cross section of a young stem.
The cortex and pith are often not distinguishable in a monocot stem, because the vascular bundles are scattered throughout the stem.
There is a cross section of a young stem.
The stems of one monocot in the grass family, bamboo, have been of great benefit in human history, and this plant continues to be useful to us today.
An oak tree has both primary and secondary tissues.
Each year new primary tissues are formed from the primary meristems.
Secondary growth occurs because of a change in the location and activity of the cambium.
There is a cambium between the xylem and phloem of the plants.
A ring of meristem that divides parallel to the surface of the plant is produced by the cambium on a yearly basis.
The diagram shows the eudicot's stem before secondary growth begins.
The diagram shows that secondary growth has begun.
The epidermis has been replaced by the periderm.
Secondary xylem and secondary phloem are produced by the cambium.
A diagram shows a stem.
The primary phloem and cortex will eventually disappear, and only the secondary phloem will be active that year.
The annual rings of a stem are created by secondary xylem.
A phloem ray is a continuation of a xylem ray.
There are cork, cork cambium, cortex, and phloem in a tree.
Without phloem it is very harmful to remove the bark of a tree.
New phloem tissue does not build up in the same way as xylem.
The bark of trees is eaten by animals in North America.
The removal of bark from the tree leads to the death of the tree.
The trunks of trees are wrapped to protect them from animals.
When cork cambium first starts to divide, it produces tissue that breaks the skin and replaces it with cork cells.
When cork cells are impregnated with suberin, a waxy layer that makes them waterproof but also causes them to die, it makes up the Casparian strip in roots.
The cells are not impregnated with suberin.
The xylem is made by the apical meristem.
Secondary xylem is made by the cambium as the plant matures.
During the winter, the cambium is not active in trees that have a growing season.
In the spring, when leaves need a lot of water for growth, the secondary xylem has wide vessel elements with thin walls.
The wood at summer wood has a lot of thick-walled tracheids.
Only heavy fibers with thick secondary walls may develop at the end of the growing season.
The age of the stem is determined by annual rings, which are the result of the build up of secondary xylem.
The rings start with spring wood and end with summer wood.
One year's growth is made up of the spring and summer wood on the tree's trunk.
You can tell the age of a tree by looking at the rings.
Transport occurs in the outer annual rings.
The xylem within the darker heartwood is inactive.
Bark, cambium, and wood are retained in a mature stem.
The pith is buried by the growth of new secondary xylem.
The cells are plugged with deposits of substances that block the growth ofbacteria and fungi.
If the season has been favorable, the annual ring may be larger than usual.
The rings may be wider on the sunnier side if the tree has been shaded.
Woody plants can grow taller and have more growth if there is adequate rain.
A long life may mean more chances to reproduce.
It takes energy to produce secondary growth and to prepare the body for winter if the plant is in the warm zone.
A long-lived plant is likely to be attacked by herbivores and parasites.
It's better for a plant to use most of its energy to produce a lot of seeds in certain habitats.
Many plants have belowground stems that are mistaken for roots.
The strawberry plant is an example of this type of stem.
A strawberry plant has horizontal stems.
A new shoot system is produced by every other node.
The iris has a horizontal stem.
The potato plant has an underground stem.
The potatoes are called tubers.
The corm of a gladiolus is covered with leaves.
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