The country has been more pure than ours in good citizens and noble actions.
Their upright character was attributed for their success.
At the same time that Greek civilization was collapsing, a group of people settled in the center of Italy on the hills surrounding Rome.
They were dedicated to their family and the city.
In time, this small group conquered the Italian peninsula, forging a coalition of peoples that enjoyed peace and prosperity while relentlessly expanding through military conquest.
After overthrowing the monarchy, Rome developed a republican form of government, in which rich and poor citizens alike participated in a highly public legislative process.
In the city, men worked, relaxed, and talked in public spaces while noblewomen directed the household.
Nonnoble men and women worked in many areas of the city and contributed to the prosperity of the city.
The experience of conquering and ruling the tribes of Italy prepared the Roman armies.
Carthage in North Africa became a confl ict with Rome as it became a great power in the Mediterranean.
The Punic Wars destroyed Carthage.
Rome was drawn into wars in Greece and the eastern Mediterranean.
The wars changed Roman identity as Rome became a world power and the republican form of government was no longer eff ective.
Livy lamented the decline of "plain living" that he believed had made the Romans great because of the influx of wealth and slaves.
The Roman Republic would end in civil war and murder at the end of this period.
The Republic left a legacy despite its demise.
Throughout the Mediterranean world, everyone knew of the proud city and its old families who had established laws, technology, and a way of life that continued.
Rome was located on hills overlooking a fertile area.
On a warm spring day, a Roman farmer was plowing the land next to his small hut to the inland regions.
In the face of such emergencies, the insula offered a number of advantages that would Roman Senate be able to offer one man supreme power for the growth of the young city.
The Senate offered a dictatorship to the farmer, who was aged political unifi cation.
He accepted the task and led his armies to defeat the invaders.
After the crisis, the Apennine mountain range low villagers asked him to continue his leadership that marches down through the peninsula, but he refused, preferring to return to abundant rainfall on the western plain.
The story of Rome's fi elds was told by the Romans in a way that was better suited for large-scale agriculture.
Sometime in the eighth century B.C.E., a tribe of ber their heroes and transmit their values to their people entered the Italian peninsula, displaced the families.
The stories offer a glimpse of the Tiber River, which is bordered by seven hills.
The greatness that would become Rome was like many of the other tribes.
Livy did not mind mixing history with farming and plowing their land.
He said there was no reason to object to the myth of the Elder.
The Carthaginians show how small Rome's impact was at the beginning.
Phoenician colonies flourished along the coast of North Africa.
The origin of these peoples who did not speak a European language was argued by Malta.
The ancient historian Herodo poses suggest a lot of affection between the two of them.
They arrived from Lydia in Asia Minor.
The famous people are from modern Turkey, but also the Greek philosopher.
Etruscan women joined banquets to tled the land and prospered.
They traded with men.
Etruscan kings ruled Rome for a time and there was a good life.
The best source of information about the Etruscan is the writings of Roman, as scholars have not yet deciphered all of them.
Etruscan daily life is the surviving artwork of the Romans.
7 5 3 - 2 6 5 B.
The sarcophagus was designed to hold cremated remains.
The couple's life is celebrated by the decoration.
The wife and husband are shown sharing equal status as they recline at dinner.
By the end of the sixth century B.C.E., the Roman Etruscan architectural features had come to resent the Etruscan and vault construction and modeled their temples kings' authority.
The Roman matron was also adopted by the Romans.
Lucretia was raped by Tarquin the Proud at a bundle of rods surrounding an ax.
Her husband told her not to show her Roman authority.
She bet and began using it to write in their own language.
Tuscany is named after a person who died.
The Romans rallied the early people around the leadership of an Etruscan nobleman after her death.
The revolt that toppled the monarchy was led by Brutus.
The early Romans continued their theme throughout their history.
Historians have to struggle with can monarchy was overthrown, but the historical combinations of history and legend accurately concluded that the Etrus of the monarchy was overthrown.
There are competing social forces to about 509 B.C.E.
PDF to printer for social issues.
A series of political reforms forced on the overthrown their own kings and replaced them with aristocracy from about 509 to 287 B.C.E., just as the Greek poleis had done.
They had a very governmental form that would require a lot of time and effort.
They needed the plebeians to be in the infantry.
Their demands were met with the overthrow of the Etruscan monarchy.
The Romans established a republic, a Latin word that means "public matter" and is often rendered "public realm" meaningful concessions.
In B.C.E., the Tribal Assembly, which was organized into striking contrast to that of the Hellenistic kings, their kingdoms were viewed as their own prop principal legislative.
Laws were passed by the Tribal erty.
The early Republic consisted of three bound people--rich and poor.
Legal reforms were included in Execu Orders.
The right to hold sacred participants voted by group, not as individuals, and the right to issues that had previously been presented to them by marry patricians made upward mobility possible.
The patricians, old families who composed afford to be in the cavalry.
Polybius believed that the Republic's working people were the only ones who retained important powers.
They incurred representation by tribunes.
7 5 3 - 2 6 5 B.
The citizens helped in two Assemblies that elected the magistrates who disagreed.
People from all walks worked for the state.
A man would be remembered in a rich patron's will, businessmen who elected to each offi ce for one year, and then wanted to use a patron's political infi ence to profi t in the late Republic, automatically become a member of their enterprises.
Most of the political life took place within a farmers, who depended on their patrons to help them more informal system, so the Roman system probably worked in part tural society.
Political support and fi nancial duties were owed to clients.
The Romans relied on the morning as the cock crowed, as failure to appear would on semiformal ties to smooth social and jeopardize one's tie of clientage.
The Republic had a complex political structure.
This chart shows the positions of the Roman assembly.
Opinion is very important.
Page citations of life and death are in the second edition.
Polybius has various functions, especially the higher magistracies.
The patron used the Senate and the Forum to exert moral authority over his clients and serve traditional privileges.
The wealthy don't want them to be good citizens.
After the morning greeting, clients accompanied their As the Republic gathered strength, territorial wars patron to the center of the city, where the day's busi between Rome and its neighbors broke out almost ness took place.
A patrician is surrounded by hundreds every year.
A man to be reckoned with was what led Rome into these repeated strug of clients.
More com lic buildings were the reality.
The Senate chamber was included in the Forum.
Rome felt a constant land hunger and was eager to acquire land to establish colonies called the Rostra.
The Roman people had a hunger for glory.
Rome's political life would be cheered by clients.
Farmers often had to shout down his opponents and offer their votes to him.
By the fourth century B.C.E., Rome that gave him stature and dignity was described as being involved in wars in the Italian penin.
The Struggle of the Orders created a republic in Latin tribes where the rich and poor had a voice.
It was against the hillside tribes.
The Latin League was formed by a system dominated by wealth and an aristocracy.
7 5 3 - 2 6 5 B.
Rome's genius for administration was shown here.
Rome gave different degrees of citizenship to the Latins.
Via Latina Port, from their renowned courage and tenacity in battle.
Most of their success came from their generosity.
All of the treaties were generous to conquered peoples.
All 5 Temple of Jupiter House of the tribes were allowed by the Romans to keep their own laws and collect their own taxes.
The city of Rome is shown on the map.
The locations of the important features are pinpointed in the middle of the Forum.
The Romans believed that the world was infused with defended its borders during the fi fth and fourth centu spirits, and that almost every space was government.
Rome's allies became erned by something.
Rome was guarded by resentful of Rome's leadership and revolted in 340 B.C.E.
The tribes of the Italian peninsula were conquered by the Romans.
How would the expansion of Rome affect the Carthaginian territories?
There were goddesses for the countryside.
The hills and valleys are the remaining spaces in the home.
One for the door, another for the ship and sacrifi ce were all demanded to be guarded by spirits.
Priests used to preside over sacrifi ces and look for good fortune in the entrails of sacrifi cial animals at the temples.
The sacred fire of the state was kept by the Vestal Virgins, who presided over the temple of the goddess of the hearth.
The Romans believed that their fate was tied to their proper observation of religious rituals, even though Sacrifi ces could be as small as a drop of wine or a honeycake.
Roman religiosity was unusual in its tolerance of other religions.
They allowed people to keep their own gods and engage in their own worship in order to not offend a deity.
Romans valued moral seriousness as well as piety.
The Republic itself and the men and women who worked for it prized duty to family, clients, and patrons.
They rejected the individualism of the Greeks and found the idea of Achilles in his tentincomprehensible.
One day, these serious men and women would rule the entire Mediterranean world because they were obedient to both secular and religious authority.
Everyone in the father's household, including his wife, gave legitimacy to their ancestors, they believed, because they had complete authority over The conservative Romans.
She became a part of her husband's family.
The woman's family of origin kept more political worship of their ancestors, which they considered to be the control of her resources, because of the nizing of all the spirits who guarded the home.
The best families show a Roman couple with busts of their ancestors in niches child.
They are standing together in the home.
There are busts of his forefathers in this grave.
A woman was an important part of the family.
They instilled in their children the values of Rome and raised them with them.
Her family may transfer her to be obedient and responsible.
She became part of his dence because of his historical control, which included her participation in the worship of his ancestors.
She could stay under her father's "hand" and never have political power through their sons.
Birth in a Roman home can be dangerous for a newborn.
The baby was inspected by the midwife before the cord was cut to make sure it was perfect.
She would cut the cord too close and kill the child.
A baby was placed at the father's feet.
The child was raised if he accepted the infant, picked up a boy or acknowledged a girl.
If he didn't, the baby would be exposed to death or be taken in and raised as a slave.
The Roman law required the father to raise one daughter, but he could choose to raise all of them.
It is not possible to know how many children were exposed and how many died.
A soldier instructs his pregnant wife to keep the child if it is a boy and expose it if it is a girl in a chilling letter.
The practice of exposure was not extraordinary.
The memorial stone of Vibius and his family received a lot of attention.
The ideal republican Roman family: serious and Soranus and Galen, with no visible emotion.
Newborns were tightly bound in Rome.
They were bathed in a bath.
Parents would decorate their houses with wall then massage and shape the screaming babies paintings called frescoes.
The view gives us a sense of what the ideal is at 6 months.
Even though the rec city looked like it, infant mortality was high and the Romans praised the urban life that formed the heart ing parents--less than half of the newborns raised of Roman culture.
Romans reached puberty even in this urban life.
The potted plants near the door were put in the care of children at the age of 6 or 7.
The formal education of the tutors began.
Children of both genders were expected to receive gardens and fountains from the wealthy.
The Roman culture was transmitted to the ted plants on the terraces and balconies of the landless renters by keeping pot an education.
Girls learned how to weave buildings.
Most city dwellers lived in their twenties.
The general education was prepared at the foot of the most prestigious house on the boys for public life.
People brought water to a wealthy boy.
If a boy was talented, at fountains and heated their homes with open flames, he began an advanced study of rhetoric.
He would not have been able to speak persuasively to the out of the city if it weren't for the waste run down sewer and washed skill.
People dumped gar in the Republic.
A tunic that came down to the thighs is the final PDF to printer undergarments.
Men who wore long tunics were considered effeminate.
Women covered themselves with long tunics that they wore under their dresses.
As in cities today, life in the urban heart of Rome was a mixture of ease and hardship, and of excitement, fellowship, and danger.
The ideal of the Republic was a place where citizens met and mingled in a public setting and where political and economic dramas unfolded.
This appealing way of life could not last for the Romans.
Changes that undermined the Roman civic ideal were brought about by Rome's military successes.
The Romans who enjoyed and contributed so much to the good life of the city were only a part of the population.
Rome's success was the result of its army.
When Mount Vesuvius erupted in 79 C.E., it buried a beautiful villa near Pompeii.
The Republic was made up of citizen-soldiers who painted a cityscape on a wall to make it look like they were looking out a window.
The Romans designed and built well in Rome.
Tax rion crows circled throughout the territory, where shallowly buried corpses rotted and car householders died.
Wealthy urban men and paying men between the ages of 17 and 46 had to women carry little bouquets of fragrant flowers that report to the capitol within thirty days.
They held their noses to protect themselves from the group.
In the afternoon, work stopped and the men formed a legion or company.
All soldiers took an oath binding them to the Republic, but they can't be in the army until death or the end of the war.
People exercised, swam, and played ball.
In which one soldier in ten was socialized, commanders baths, had massages, got their body hair plucked, and practiced decimation.
If a unit failed badly, it was killed in the late afternoon and evening.
It was time for a break.
warfare in the Mediterranean was governed by the crowds in the Forum.
Romans always included a polit by informal rules that allowed surrender before the ical dimensions of the talk.
The Roman soldier, who gained obscene nicknames, hated to return home defeated.
Romans helped set future political fortunes by passing rumors that prevented him from resuming his life in jokes.
The Roman army was an obedient, iron- willed unit under the strict command of its leaders.
The relief carving is a detail of a daily activity for soldiers while they were on campaign.
There is a full column on the right.
These tasks were included in the important historical sources for Roman military life.
Rome was founded around the same time as the city of heavily on wine and food, and this attitude probably came from them.
The colony prospered because of its trade and discipline extended to camp life, as it became a diverse and cosmopolitan city.
They were impregnable to surprise attack.
The republican soldier came back after being of pure Phoenician heritage.
Merchants spoke Greek and other languages while he was busy with only a few gold coins in his shops.
Through the Mediterranean as they sold wares, they drew a series of victories.
The Republic's growing wealth side the Mediterranean basin, trading along the west and power clashed with new foes outside the penin ern coast of Africa.
The army was transformed by these contests.
2 6 5 - 1 3 3 B.
PDF to printer mutual trust instead of language skills After unloading their cargo on the African shore, the merchants summoned local tribesmen by smoke signals and then returned to their ships.
The Africans approached and laid out what they thought was a fair amount for the goods and then withdrew without taking the goods until the Carthaginians agreed on the price.
Rome's clash infantry could board the enemy ship by hand.
Who would object to Rome being a presence in Sicily?
The western Mediterranean was still unresolved.
A second contest seems to have been inevitable as both sides sent troops in an effort to con.
It had trouble with the treaty because it was in Carthaginian territory, but Rome had an alliance with Saguntum that predated the treaty.
The Offi cials in Saguntum instigated a battle with the less demonstrated Carthaginians by killing their supporters, and the Car tenacity and designed a new warship that would attack Saguntum.
The Second Punic War began before the Romans.
The tactic of ramming one ship into war was different from the one of sinking the other.
Car boarded the opposing ship to engage the enemy, but thaginians knew victory would only come if they weren't very often.
This was changed by the Romans.
They brought war to Rome.
The Roman ships were rammed.
Carthaginian vessel could pull away, however, a plat Italy, moving his large Hellenistic-style army overland form descended and Roman troops swept across, tak from Spain into the peninsula.
The lightly manned Carthaginian ship was attacked by Roman legions.
The Romans had to confront the military power of armies that scuttled their own destroyed ship and seized the war elephants.
It took 30,000 Carthaginians to cross the Alps.
How difficult would it have been for the Carthaginian Republic?
The map shows the expansion of the Republic as it fought victorious wars against Carthage and the Macedonian.
How might the Romans have become involved in Seleucid kingdoms in the East?
For a long time Roman mothers would win many victories and shock the local population with their actions.
They adopted a defensive attitude and refused central Italy.
The Carthaginian forces wreaked havoc on Italy for almost seventeen years, but Rome's traditional policy to treat conquered territories worked well.
2 6 5 - 1 3 3 B.
One of the commanders escaped, the other was slain, and which of them showed the greater spirit is questionable.
Varro did not despair; Paulus was ashamed to survive.
The Carthaginian army was able to surround the Romans and defeat them by faking retreat and carrying him in a abandoning Cannae.
He might have them without mercy.
The citizens of Rome were alarmed by the defeat as they were nearly defenseless.
Map 4.1 shows the location of Cannae.
The slaughter of forty thousand men is not followed up by Hannibal.
Carthage's Spanish lands and North Macedonia were taken over by the Hellenistic Macedonian kingdom Africa.
Cartha had to leave Italy to defend his homeland and he had to face weak support in North Africa.
The Romans were decimated byScipio.
The Carthaginian ally Philip V of B.C.E.
was prevented from succeeding by the Roman control of the sea.
The final PDF was sent to the printer to commemorate his victory.
Money, promising not to wage war without Rome's permis art, and slaves now owed from the east to Rome.
But peace lasted only a short time.
Historians disagree about Rome's motives for encroaching on its territory in North Africa.
Car is continuing the warfare.
Some Romans were becoming rich without Rome's permission, but Rome didn't allow it.
In 150 B.C.E., Plutarch did not impress his fel speech with his rousing for an ambitious Roman lay.
He reminded them.
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